Topic 9: Law, crime and punishment

Law is an established set of regulations or authority aimed at bringing order and harmony in the society.

Law is a rule, principle, legal profession which the state or community put in place in order to guide its members to teach the expected goal or behaviour.

Importance of law

The prime aim of the law is to regulate personal behaviour interpersonal relationship in order to bring about harmony in society.

Law acts as a guideline to bring about balance between individual's rights and community expectation and therefore respect for human rights.

Law acts as a pointer to what is right and what is wrong in a society so that deviation from it brings self judgement and judgement by society.

Law enforces security of individuals in the community or nation which enhances peace.

Law brings order in society because each member will fear to deviate from it.

Law out lines penalties or type of punishment to the culprit who becomes a victim.

Law prevents crimes in society for instance murder cases are punishment; attempted rape is punishable by life imprisonment etc.

Law promotes and maintains good relationship because it reconciles those who are opposed to one another.

Law assists executers of justice particularly courts of law and security organs to be wet- defended in that they do is according to the law e.g. the hanging of Sadam Hussein.

Law assists or helps the executive to get grip over the population in spite of their size and former status.

Law also helps the existence of effective system of administration in that administration uses the law in carrying out their duties.

Examples of law

In Uganda in 1988 there was a traffic road safety act which gave penalties to offenders as follows:-

Sect. 100 prohibits taxi owners, drivers, conductors or any other person acting on their behalf from touting or calling passengers and this is because their noise aimed at attracting the public makes them continuously to induce, annoy by getting peoples luggage and therefore on contravening" the fine is between 40,000 to 300,000/= or jail term of 6 months or both.

Sect. 100; any use of unlicensed vehicles or carrying more passengers 1 goods than indicated on contravening; the fine is between 300,000 - 1.2 million or jail term of 6 months.

Types of Law

There are basically two:-

Written code of law

In every nation, there are a number of laws such as the constitution, statutory instruction which can be referred to in courts of law.

The penal code for instance is a document that spells out criminal offences and omissions and their relations and their related punishments. The Ugandan penal code has 43 chapters covering offences and the law applied to each as noted below:-

Theft: According to sect 245 of the penal code any cause of an item to move to different place without the consent of the owner is theft and according to sec. 252 the penalty is 5 years imprisonment.

Defilement: According to sec. 123 of the penal code it protects girls below 18 years and any unlawful carnal knowledge of a girl below 18 years, if arrested one goes for remand for 2 years and on being convicted, it is death or life imprisonment.

However, section 122 protects boys less than 14 years; any unlawful relationship with a boy below 14 with such a boy is considered indecent assault.      

Rape: According to section 217 of the penal code, any person who has unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman or girl above 18 years without her consent, by force, threat, intimidation of any kind by fear of bodily harm or means of false representation through witchcraft the punishment is death by hanging.

Unwritten code of law

These are laws which are not written down but strongly followed by society e.g. family laws, community behaviour such as relating with members of society, eating habits, marriage etc.

In African tradition if you close a certain path you must open another. In Buganda, one is not supposed to eat a big cock without sharing with neighbours. In societies like in Bugisu if forced on spot. Ignorance of the law is no defence.

Morality and the law

Morality is the practice or ways of judging the rightness or wrongness of an action.

Right actions are said to be moral, while wrong actions are immoral and are condemned.

Morality and the law assist each other in shaping individuals' behaviours e.g. religious laws and teaching make people to be morally upright and any deviation is considered immorality and such a person is deemed for hell.

Sometimes, some religious lows are made state laws such as Islamic laws in Sandi Arabia, Nigeria, Sudan which comprise of Islamic beliefs and practices.

On its members such laws bring injustice on those who do not to that religion / faith.

But even in states where Christians are majority they rarely make Christianity as state law allows abortion when requested by the mother which to Christians is sin.

In African tradition when one's just wife fails to produce, he is expected to bring another and yet in Christianity it is considered wrong. At the same time Islam allows even up to four or more depending on ones ability.

In most countries where Christianity is majority, they have not made state laws Christian because they believe Christian morality cannot be imposed to the whole society because it will be against the rights of the minority. That is why there are different forms of marriage recognised in the country.

Christian' morality is based on free choice or personal commitment and is based on self judgement, commitment and understanding.

The Christian uses the bible as the standard of reference or basis of Christian morality e.g. Dt 30: 15. "I have set before you this day life and death, good and evil" so man is free to choose.

Christian morality may be different from that of government because what Christianity considers sinful may be legally allowed e.g. prostitution in south Africa is legally accepted; lesbianism, homosexuality is accepted in some American states.

The Christian uses the bible as the standard of reference or basic of Christian morality e.g. Ot. 30: 15 "I have set before you this day life and death good and evil" so man is free to choose.

Christian morality may be different from that of government because what Christianity considers sinful may be legally allowed e.g. prostitution in south Africa is legally accepted; lesbianism, homosexuality is accepted in some American states.

Comparison between morality and law

While morality is the practice of right and wrong of an action, all social relationships are linked with authority or law as guidelines for conduct or standards of morality accepted.

As we live in a changing society there is need to change certain laws or standards of morality accepted, e.g. inheriting of widows was legal in African tradition but presently it is optional or non existent in some societies.

While people live united in beliefs and moral standards, law then enforces particular systems e.g. countries which are controlled by religious laws which end up being unjust to other people of other faith.

Sometimes there is always a contradiction between what is morally bad but legalised by state e.g. divorce, abortion, prostitution.

The law is for public morality but if legalised according to Christian norms, then Christianity takes over because while the law is concerned with crime, religion is concerned with sin and in that way they held each other.

It should be realised that too much liberty increases immorality because the law does not guard private morality and that is lesbianism, homosexuality have increased.

It is important to note that Christian morality is derived from God, the creator of all but sometimes some people create their own morality e.g. what is moral in one society may be immoral in another e.g. gays who struggle for rights of recognition.

Some laws bring more disadvantages than advantages and can reduce one to nothing e.g. if a woman marries a man who ties meat with a rope, miser, does not allow people to visit his home.

Sometimes people observe the law as a duty without change on their morals i.e. unless one is caught he remains innocent.

Law does not bring salvation because in the Jewish community people failed to observe the law rightly based on external observance without the inner change.

Some laws bring more disadvantages than advantages and can reduce one to nothing e.g. if a woman marries a man who ties meat with a rope, miser, does not allow people to visit his home.

Sometimes people observe the law as a duty without change on their morals i.e. illness one is caught he remains innocent.

Law does not bring salvation because in the Jewish community people failed to observe the law rightly based on external observances without the inner change.

Some laws are for self defence or maintenance of status quo of those in power but one removed immediately after their departure.

Divisions of the law:

They are basically two.

Civil law: which is the body of regulation made by authority of the state to help citizens maintain a balance between rights of individuals and needs of society?

Such laws deal with civil crimes such as divorce, dowry, land disputes, wills and inheritance traffic laws such as turning left or right which may not be injurious in nature but can affect relationships in society

Criminal law:

This law on the other hand controls forces like terrorists, robbers, murderers, treason cases because these are injurious in nature and can affect life and property and there is need to protect the community against such anti social behaviours in order to make stability in society.

These laws need the police, judiciary to enforce them to ensure peace and stability and obedience of the law in the society.

African traditional morals and their importance

Since morals deal with what is wrong and right in human conduct, in African tradition, religion and morality are integrated and therefore below are some of the integrated and therefore below are some of the aspects about morality in African tradition.

To African, morals keep society in harmony e.g. in may African societies; respect was paramount in that no one was supposed to look down upon any elder. "Omukulu tasobya" in Buganda.

Morals are taken to be God given so deviation may anger ancestors, spirits and God; in the end calamities can affect that society e.g. when children have measles no sex is allowed in Bunyole because ancestors may get annoyed and kill children.

By proper observance of morals, people do their duties and enjoy rights from that society for a well- behaved and obedient wife will always enjoy her stay with her husbands.

Morals guide ones behaviour for only personal living or needs of society but also for community expectation as for as eating habits, health, sanitation are concerned.

African morals are social in nature so that no one is for himself alone under the saying 'I am because we are and since we are therefore law' or no man is an Island."

Morals breed virtues, acceptable in society e.g. love, compassions, honesty, justice, self control, courage, help family, humility, social esteem etc e.g. among the shilluk if a family is struck by famine they place a basket at the function to their home so that any well wisher places food stuffs in it for their survival.

African morals promoted responsibility and dislike for wrong doing e.g. among the Samia; if one passed a group of people without greeting them, they would call somebody of his size to tight him and if he overpowers they bring more till he bows down for mercy. This is because greeting in the African tradition is taken seriously.

In African tradition, when you close me path you open another (Basoga).

Good morals therefore keep society happy and peaceful or prosperous because all forms of misbehaviour are checked and punished.

According to African morals, the elders are always right e.g. the Samia say 'omuhongo sike nyamba akaunya' ie the etc elder does not make a smelly gas. So no blame in expected.

Elders are seen as the only knowledgeable people in society e.g. the Baganda say, "Elise Iyo mukulu awadugala wewalaba" i.e. the dark spot on an elder's eye sees best.

Every society uses some my this legends, proverbs to teach its members on traditional morals e.g. "crime wele kanori jachaudi ki topi" among the japadhola meaning that what God keeps for the poor does not rot."

Why there is a moral decline in modern society  

There is influence of western culture for instance the dressing patterns, freedom of expression or opinion and individualism.

These days, parents no longer take time to educate their children on morals and others areas of life.

Lack of example from parents both in behaviour and action e.g. some parents are obscene, dress indecently which is copied by their children.

There is a problem of generation gap whereby there are conflicts between the young and the old because they have different desires, likes and dislikes.

Family instabilities have caused moral decline in cases where there is divorce and separation, the man or woman develop different life styles and children become victims.

There is also peer group influence whereby the youth pick certain behaviours from them others such as sexual immorality, vandalism, drinking, smoking bhangi etc.

There is also lack of good discipline because parents expect teachers to guide children in everything and sometimes where teachers are defeated; it is worse with parents.

There is great permissiveness of society where people reject guidance, traditional rules and religious guidelines under the saying 'Every one for himself and God for all' or 'I don't care attitude.'

Moral decline has also been caused by the changing roles and status of women whereby women are no longer dependents to men and can be bosses over men and therefore no more respect as before.

The aspect of employing house girls/ boys for money gives no time for parents to teach children but instead these employees teach them bad manners including defiling them.

These days, there is no recognised taboo which and the youth today say relatives are sweeter yet those days calamities were expected and so if discovered virtual had to be made e.g. among the JapAdhola; a boy would be made to urinate from the top of the house into the girls private parts 'to create resentment.'

These days, there are romantic literature and novels / magazines which expose private parts and sexual actions such as red pepper, chic and as the youth read them they put into practice.

There is also influence of mass media today such as TV, radio, newspapers, films and songs which are obscene orfilms of vandalism e.g. Odhiambo of Nairobi University and Arinaitwe of Makerere university students learnt surgery from films and ended up as serial killers.

Urbanisation has had a big influence on moral decline where some people sleep in one roomed house, slum areas which expose children to all forms of activities from the environment.

Modern education which separates families and worsened by employment opportunities whereby family members have less time for touch and guidance. Modern education also is more secular and has lost religious value. .

Modern technology such as aspect of family planning which allows people to use condoms to avoid STDs and pregnancies and so girls scatter themselves without fear of pregnancy.

The problem of AIDS scourge has made parents to die leaving children on their own to look for survival and they lack proper guidance.

Working far from home, a man/ women gets sexual satisfaction from other channels and this brings in VDs/ STDs or legitimate children causing conflicts.

These days people marry from different societies / tribes / races, unlike before when parents got involved, so no proper knowledge of background idleness has made many ends up pick pocketing, rape etc.

There is general misuse of leisure such as drug abuse, excessive drinking, smoking, bad language etc.

Cultural degeneration on issues like virginity before marriage is no longer a virtue instead it is a sign of ignorance and is shameful.

Advertisement also makes people more immoral e.g. life guard condoms "so strong, so smooth, feels good" so one wants to test.

Economic crisis and love for money e.g. prostitution, Kimansulo in Kampala.

Account for the violation of laws in Uganda

Lack of efficient government machinery to deal with criminals.

Bad examples from the authority


Decline in religious convictions

High rate of illiteracy

Lack of moral guidance.

Bureaucracy where certain conditions or people must be used or approached to achieve what one wants.

Inequality in society; big gap between the rich and the poor.

Alieni western influences


Socio - economic discrimination.

Negative influences of mass media.


Rural urban migration


Drug abuse



The role of the police in enforcing law and order

The word police is an abbreviation of the role it is expected to carry our i.e. policy, obedient, lenient, intelligent, confident and effective; it's a consortium of the ministry of internal affairs.

It is supposed to ensure the internal security of the country, keep peace, law and order.

It carries out public prosecution in courts of law during proceedings. Through this criminals are identified and death with.

They carry out investigation on civil and criminal offences to ensure transparency in justice where truth can be separated from false information.

The traffic section ensures road safety to combat accidents and uphold wrong drivers or identify DMC vehicles.

Police is responsible in blocking death or saving life in case of mob justice by society.

Quelling illegal rebellions such as riots, strikes are suppressed to ensure conducive atmosphere e.g. during presidential campaigns and court proceedings of Besigye the black Mambas.

Protects life and property in case of fire outbreaks by fire brigade.

It provides security to local masses by way of home guards, patrolling banks etc.

Ensures that state laws are adhered to.

Arrests suspects, puts them under custody to save society of such culprits e.g. robbers/thieves.

It creates security to ensure good busyness atmosphere e.g. guard at super markets.

Trivial conflicts in society are solved by policy officers to help in reconciliation.

They also issue bonds to suspects to save the innocent from being punished psychologically.

Reformative local punishments e.g. probation where one may be required to report to policy frequently as a way of building ones morals or as investigations go on.

They protect human rights.

Ensure that government policies are not sabotaged.

Provide security at banks and offices.

Counter attack armed robberies e.g. the former VCCU (Violent Crime Crack Unit) of operation Wembley.

Sensitise public about law and order by liasation officers e.g. at schools about dangers of a strike.

International police is a custody of information especially passport and identifying citizen and hand in hand with international police in different countries (Interpol).

Rescuers workers in case of oppression.

However, in spite of the above policy have registered negative weaknesses from local level to national level.

Some police officers are well-known for corruption tendencies through taking bribes called Kitu Kidogo.

Issuing of bounds, arrest warrants in unclear and unprincipled manner without stipulated procedure.

Some have failed to present the criminal investigation reports to court in time and this affects the judiciary; worst of it disappearance of files is common.

Some suspects are tortured by police e.g. burning suspects with droppings of burning jericans.

Disposal off cases before presenting to courts of law e.g. thieves can be released claiming no evidence and that is why some people apply mob justice long detentions without trial.

Problems of the police force.

With the great role they have to maintain law and order the organisation is short of manpower; actually robbers can even rob 100m away from their station and go free.

Inadequate communication facilities, no transport, at some stations 1 posts.

Inadequate equipment for daily operation e.g. no radio call, fire brigade to extinguish fires.

There are government interferences i.e. no demarcation between army and police where suspects are taken to army detentions or even making army commanders to be in charge of police e.g. Kayihura.

Unequal distribution of resources; actually the police are the worst considered in terms of pay, housing or benefits and this explains why they are forced to be corrupt.

The use outdated laws e.g. where adultery case is to be charged 2001- or 6001- makes no impact to the crime.

Ignorance of the population about their role.

They generally lack basics like fuel, stationery for making statements.

Poor accommodation, congestion where an import can be shared by two families.

Poor sanitation; lack proper toilets, bathroom.

Police can arrest big sorts in government but are removed by force either by army commandeered.

Why African tradition had no police

The strict African cultures were actually 'watch dogs' of disorder members cherished and respected these concepts.

They had strict forms of punishment such as banishment, ex- communication, e.g. in Karamoja immorality led one to be speared to death.

There were less criminal as com peered to today.

Society was very close to kinship and so no loopholes in security. One is observed right from home.

It was a desire by all to enforce justice.

Minor cases could be solved by family heads, clan members, local chiefs, kings.

People respected the laws of their society and no deviant behaviour was tolerated.

Law and order was a responsibility of everybody in society to enforce peace and harmony.

The social characters of a man were stressed and how he shared morality with other members.

Everyone is born and brought up according to required norms.

Ancestral spirits acted as police who could arrest, discipline police offenders.

Christian teaching on law

It is important to note that society's survival depends on the presence of laws and regulations, be it in schools, nation or family. Christianity therefore has the following teaching about the law:-

In Mt. 5: 17 in the beatitudes 'Jesus did not come to abolish the law but to perfect it; in other words he came to improve on the proper use of the law.'

1 Pet. 2: 13-17, Christians are called to observe civil and .criminal law and this shows how laws are important in society.

Act 5:29,4: 19 express that where government law contradicts Christian teaching or God's will Christians should obey God rather than men (Cf Rom 13: 1-14).

The Bible states that conscience, which is natural law, is already written in peoples hearts, which should guide Christians in various circumstances (Rom 2: 14-15, 1: 26- 27).

Law is necessary since it shows the limits of one's action as it describes the kind of punishment for any crime committed.

Where there is law, discipline is ensured right from family since it prescribes the rights of the citizen.

Law guards against sectarian, discrimination in race, sex, religion and therefore emphasis is all are equal before the law since all are created in same image of God (Gen 1 :26).

However, Christian teaching sees laws as having loopholes because they do not give one time to express ones freedom.

Secondly, Christian teaching is that strict observance of the law can make one alienated from the will of God because law does not bring salvation.

St. Peter says "for the sake of the Lord, submit to every authority" (Peter 2:13, should Christians therefore support government in all circumstances?)

In Peter's teaching we learn the following:-

Disobeying civil authority is disobeying God.

This shows that Christians have a political responsibility / role to play in running of government affairs.

Paul also asks Christians to pray for political leaders for guidance since they are put by God.

Christians have dual citizenship, both in the heavenly kingdom and authority on earth which they have to submit to.

Despite Nero's persecution, Peters advises Christians to honour him just as we may have ruthless rulers.

The government is subject to God's judgement if it fails to govern according to God's will i.e. has a duty to act as God's will require.

The church should only support the government if it applies politics of concern for all citizens.

The Church can also support government if there are no malpractices prevailing in government such as corruption and embezzlement.

If there is economic improvement of the people.

If there is observance of human rights freedoms.

If political systems favour everybody.

If government works for the good of all i.e. works to improve on the rights of disadvantaged groups like disabled, aged, orphans etc.

However, the church should not support government in the following circumstances.

If there is oppression of the people.

If church and state have varying aims e.g. heavenly kingdom as opposed to earthly (conflict between).

If there is corruption, nepotism, tribalism, sectarianism e.g. in Uganda where % of cabinet ministers are from two regions (Buganda + Western).

Detention without trial, unwarranted arrests like it was during Amin's regime.

No right association is granted for matters of concern.

If government fails to observe human rights.

If attempts to bring reforms fail church should not support.

If government policies conflict with people's feelings e.g. forced Chakamchaka in 1980s -90s.

Massive killing of innocent people e.g. Amin's regime.

The church should not support government if government is not working to improve on living conditions.

If government enforces laws that do not favour Christian e.g. Islamic law in Sudan made Garang organise rebellion.

If the regime does not listen to people's demands.

If government fails to observe human rights.

"Let every person be subject to human authority......God" Rom 13:1. To what extent should a Christian support government in all circumstances?

To a greater extent the church should support government in most circumstances.

In order to protect evangelism, education, and instruction of religion.

Leaders are God's servants "all authority is instituted by God."

The church has a role to play in government with its influence for the better and is able to suppress evil.

By refusing to support government it is equivalent to rebellion against God (1 Peter 2:7).

A Christian is a member of political community who enjoys the fruits of politicians like peace, hospitals, and roads.

By supporting government the church ensure that rigging of elections is minimised.

Rom 13:5, the church should support not only for fear of punishment because of conscience.

The church member can influence politicians fulfil their promises.

It can minimise social evils like bribery, embezzlement, corruption and racism.

It can influence the rule of law and implementation of God's laws.

The Christian has a role to promote brotherly between members of different ideologies.

The church has a role to pray for political leaders and physically supporting them.

However, under the following conditions the church should not support government:-

When there is abuse of human rights.

When there is abuse of rule of terror, murder.

When there is an abuse injustice, oppression.

When there is abuse of exploitation of the unprivileged.

When there is abuse of dictatorial governance.

It should be known that subject to authority does not mean total obedience to every command.

Jesus and his disciples stood against this e.g. Peter said 'we must obey God rather than men' (Act 5:29).

All authority is from God and in case a leader misuses/ abuses it he should be challenged.

If government does not to improve standards of the population.

Church should speak out government evils.

Government power is not sovereign.

When the state introduces laws contrary to God's will it should be resisted

Discuss the role of Local Councils (LCs) in keeping law and order in Uganda

Local council administration units were introduced by NRM government to help in administering the nation; right from village (LC I), parish (LC II), sub county (LC III), county/ urban (LC IV)and district (LC V) .

They encourage observance of law and order to enable people live harmoniously.

They encourage respect of human rights.

They are involved in settling disputes for peaceful existence.

They recommend good citizens for jobs leaving out criminals .

They identity and recommend true citizens e.g. in case one wants to get travel documents or get access to university.

They help in collecting data e.g. birth, death registrations.

They encourage hard work to promote agriculture and are opposed to idle people.

Pass information from government to their people such as health on mass immunisation, UPE in education, election awareness etc .

Mobilise people for meetings development and issues of community concern.

They identify and report criminals, rebels to necessary authority e.g. police, army to arrest them.

Through their local defence personal they keep security and arrest things, thieves.

However, there have been notable failures from local councils as noted:-

They are corrupt and can recommend wrong people for jobs.

Not only that they recommend non citizens to enjoy national benefits like state sponsorship, passport e.g. many Nyaruandas have Ugandan passports and have been sponsored by Uganda e.g. Kagame president of Rwanda .

Some collaborate with rebels especially there were cases in Acholi. Some side with those who supported them.

They are partial, work for the welfare of government in power.

They are not easily available to people but are happy when there is a case to solve expecting money out of them.

They are corrupt and demand money for even signing documents/ letters of recommendation.

They favour the rich and neglect the poor.

Their judgment is guided by corruption tendencies e.g. if one has given them what to eat they side with him.

Some are dictators.

Some delay to handle serous issues e.g. land disputes.

The role of the judiciary in maintaining law and order

The judiciary is one of the principle organs of the state/ government.

It is responsible for interpretation of the law to the public and trying or giving punishment to law broken.

It comprises of courts of law from sub-county, country, district high courts, court of appeal, constitutional and is composed of magistrates, judges and headed by the chief justice under the political representative; attorney general.

Its major role is to interpret the constitutional laws to the people.

It also judges, arbitrates between individuals or institutions within the political process.

It advices, the executive on assumption of emergency power, swears in leaders etc.

The judiciary has general support with existing systems (political).           

It tries to achieve justice in society where violation of justice is in place.

It acts as a moral reformatory body to those who commit crimes.

It punishes criminals who have been found guilty by sentencing them.

It acts as a moral warning to those who may intend to repeat similar crimes of similar nature.

It protects the individual's rights in society by seeing that the law is upheld and order is put in place and this helps restore relationships in society.

Judiciary plays a role in succession of property especially where a will is made through the office of the administrator general.

Problems faced by judiciary since independence.

The judiciary for sometime has not always been independent or free from government control.

The judges (some) have been involved in political affairs of the country e.g. Kavuma who was a state minister in NRM government became a judge so he is biased towards it.

Some governments ended up creating Kangroo courts e.g. military tribunals set by Amin, military court martial by Museveni headed by incompetent people e.g. Tumwine a fine artist judging cases .

The army and police have often had arbitrary powers where suspects are tortured in barracks for trial/imprisonment.

The setting up of road blocks from time to time civilians fall prey to punishments leading to loss of life without proper justice.

The judgements have always not been free to publish/ publicise trial verdicts for fear of politicians.

Judges are not always says in judgment like Amin killed the chief justice Ben Kiwanuka .

Judges work has been watered down due to frequent government changes which always lead to unconditional release of criminals.

The judges mix freely with the people in public places which are against professional ethics (for instance in drinking places) .

The police has not been efficient in being helpful to the judicial system e.g. CIDs enjoy bribes even after investigations; files of criminals disappear at police stations, making the work difficult.

Shortage of trained personal (judges) to judicial system as those trained have run away due to insecurity or in search for greener pastures elsewhere in other countries.

There have been many detentions without trial in courts of law, thus under looking their work.

Some judges have also been well-known for abuse of office by practicing corruption, accepting bribes.

They also release dangerous criminals claiming that there is no evidence .

In cases related to government in power they have to be careful when judging e.g. during presidential elections of 2001, and 2006 there were clear indications of rigging and insecurity caused by government organs but they had to dispose of the petition against the election that "for security reasons!"

Some judges fear to handle delicate cases e.g. Besigye's terrorism case and desire to topple government many judges have dodged getting involved.