Topic 13: The political Community or the State.

A state is defined as the public power machinery that controls and protects its people within the boundary of a nation.

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It is also an organised community of people governed by one independent government.

A state can also be defined as a supreme body in a nation and has ultimum authority overall residents of its boundary. Every person becomes a member of the state at birth and membership cannot be disowned through citizenship but can be transferred by nationalisation.

A nation on the other hand, is a large collection of persons who closely associate with each other by a common descent, language history and form a distinct organised group of people occupying a definite territory.

Characteristics of the state

Every political community has the following recognisable features:-

Community made up of families recognisable and who depend on one another.

There is common authority with power over its members towards a common goal of wellbeing.

Has a duty to guarantee security of individuals and families against injustice.

Should have judicial system to control behaviour.

Should have the constitution, laws and have sovereignty.

Should have political instruments like president.

Has clearly marked boundaries.

Have citizens.

Use and Abuse of Power by the State

Power can be used in the state when:-

There is constitutional governance.

There is freedom of speech, the press, and worship.

The law of the land is effectively in use .

There is justice.

Political reforms are not done through pressure groups but through fair and free elections.

Facilitation of gender balance in education, employment and other sectors.

Democratic institution thrives.

The judiciary is effective and independent in its decision making on the central government.

There is protection of the under privileged like women, physically handicapped, children.

There is employment and investment by both indigenous people and foreigners.

There is respect for human rights.

However, power can be abused when:-

Church leaders and Christians are being persecuted like it was in 1970s in Amins regime when church leaders like Arch bishop Janan Luwum were killed and Kabaka Mwanga's time the Uganda martyrs were burnt at Namugongo in 1886.

When the security of citizens is put at stake due to antagonism of other neighbouring states.

If a leader rigs elections to gain undue advantage over his/her opponents.

When the state tempers with religious freedom like it was in sudan when the Arab government instituted Islamic law over everybody.

When payments and remunerations are not in proportion to the input which later lead to strikes of medical workers, teachers and lecturers e.g. the recent one of Makerere University which led to the closure.

If government leaders are dishonest and generally lead immoral life.

When there is an oppressive and exploitative condition e.g. in Bunya people are sent away from forest areas where they have lived for long.

When government makes demands which are unjust and impossible to obey or not in public interest.

When leaders make empty promises by fooling people e.g. 'Bona Bagagawale' prosperity for all where a household will be made to have an annual income of 20 million by Museveni.

In Situations of detention which is unlawful e.g. the so called PRA suspects.

When the state enforces its will on the church.

There is dictatorial- fascist environment in a situation where either the state is right or subjects are wrong and no democracy.

If the unity of the people is threatened.

Imbalanced socio- economic development based on sectarian, tribalism tendency e.g. western Uganda vis - avis the East and North.

Abuse of human rights such as detentions without trial like it was in Amin's regime.

Loss of confidence in government due to injustice.

When there is abrogation of the constitution when Obote in 1966 changed the constitution to remove the Kabaka which can lead to a state of anarchy making it possible to remove the incumbent.

If partnership fails in co- existence despite the fact that we are all equal in fight of God.

How Jesus demonstrated the use of power.

Jesus, though the son of God, showed in action, that he did not come to be served but to serve.

He therefore taught that having power / authority means extending services to others.

He stated that the greatest among you must be like the youngest and the leader must be a servant" and "I am among you as one who serves."

In the night before he was arrested he washed the disciples' feet.

Even at the time of his arrest he remained humble and accepted his arrest as God's will though he had powers to resist his captors.

He accepted to sacrifice self by dying on the cross for the sins of mankind.

He was a spiritual and not a political king and though people wanted to make him king by force he did not accept.

Through his public ministry he used his divine power to establish the kingdom of God .

His miracles of healing, exorcism and rising people back to life were a clear demonstration of power.

He did not use his power to dominate others or oppress people but set people free and gave them life .

He declares in John 14:6 that he is the way the truth and the life who leads people to the father into all truth and therefore life provider.

Political activities

Politics is any activity concerned in the acquisition of power, access to and control of resources and gaining of ones own needs .

It is also the complex relationship of people in society especially involving power and authority .

Ralph Walda Emerson defines it as 'the greatest science of service of mankind i.e. solves problems democratically in public interest.'

In the devil's dictionary, the journalist Ambrose Burse defines politics as strife of interest masquerading as a contest of principles.

The conduct of public affairs for public advantage.'

Politics therefore entails the followings:-

Politics as power and influence (getting obedience and ability to use others.)

Politics involves pursuit of positions (running for positions)

Politics as conflict management between individuals and groups .

Whether Christians like it or not politics is part and parcel of life but to simply burry their heads in sand like Ostriches will not help because whatever happens in a way it will affect them directly or indirectly .

A Christina has the duty to fulfil to God as a citizen of God's kingdom as well as to the world (Mt 22:21, 17:24-27) "Give Caeser what belongs to Caesar and to God what belongs to God. (Temple tax and service)."

St. Paul was a Roman citizen and was proud of it and claimed his rights (Act 21 :39, 22:25) so Christians must be proud of their citizenship .

Jesus taught a balanced life of being in the world as well as being a Christian e.g.

Jesus' disciples are not of this world (In 17: 14-16) and yet God loved the world (In 3:16); instead he prayed for disciples to be kept from the evils of the world (In 17:15) .

Christians endorse the complex native of life, politics inclusive .

God himself choose leaders (political) for Israel e.g. Moses .

Leadership is God given / divine (Rom 13: 1-7, 1 Pet. 2: 16-17) .

Christian participation ensures proper utilisation and exploitation of resources .

It helps to guard human rights .

While the Christian is called to have a clear attitude to politics he must realise that there is a better world, the kingdom of God; so he must detach himself from worldly activities that do not glorify God.

It is also Christian responsibility to pray for those in authority so as to lead the nation in the right way .

Political authority and religious teaching should be coordinated to ensure a peaceful and smooth running of the system.

In principle both Christians and politicians recognise the need to uphold fundamental rights of man.

Christianity and politics are complementary to one another.

The Christian has the prophetic role to advise and guide political activities.

Their participation helps to safeguard their rights and privileges as stipulated in the law e.g. freedom of worship.

Christians in African claim to be the pioneers of nationalism.

Positive relationship promotes peace and development.

Reconcile conflicting parties.

Jesus did not reject politics but misuse.

Christians and politicians can work together to promote community projects e.g. schools, hospitals.

As Christian mission there is need to care for spiritual and physical needs.

They have a right to vote.

However, though political involvement is imperative the Christian must be careful to participate directly because of the following:-

Realise how dirty it can be as stated above.

He must observe the limits of his involvement because of his responsibility to God (Mk 1 :15) .

He must also be conscious that if the state rules contrary to God's expectation e.g. denying freedom of worship, oppressive; it should be disobeyed or warned.

In his participation he must be prepared to protest for truth even at the expense of his life in order to overthrow oppressive governments.

Party politics can divide the Christian community as it is divisive and does not rely on truth but struggle to be in power.

Why Politics is considered a dirty game

It involves struggle for power by politicians where there is mudslinging, propaganda, blowing out of proportion small flames and character assassination e.g. an 2001 and 2006 elections Museveni used all kinds of abuses towards Besigye such as AIDS victim, terrorist.

It causes divisions and enmity among people and therefore brings instability e.g. during election campaigns people are so divided and hate each other .

It involves dinging to power and suppressing people rights e.g. Sadam Hussein in Iraq .

Leads one to tell lies for purposes of winning elections e.g. Aggrey Awor promised people in Teso to set up a car assembling plant.

Leads to committing of crimes by eliminating opponents e.g. most rebel commanders who did not belong to NRA like Kayira were eliminated by death.

May breed hatred and envy especially party politics like recently between Besigye's supporters and Museveni .

It is associated with dictatorship, oppression imprisonment of members of opposition e.g. Kamuzu Banda in Malawi.

Can lead to family disruptions where wife and husband can separate due to different political idea logy e.g. Njuba and wife, Specioza Kazibwe with Engineer Kazibwe .

He was a good shepherded as foretold by Ezekiel who lays his life for the sheep .

In Jn 10:10 he declares that he had come that people may have life and have it abundantly.

He taught with authority as a messiah who had come to make a positive change in people's way of life.

As a messiah he comes for all men and through his authority he reconciled men to each other.

When Peter cut off the ear of Malclus during his arrest, he placed it back to its place and said 'those who use the sword will die by the sword.'

It can lead to death like coup de tat.

Not dirty

It is a programmatic mode by which the state is governed and order maintained.

Politicians contribute in history in the process of giving freedoms and enforcing of human rights.

Politicians can be used for channelling the feelings of the common man to the top.

Politics is the art of governance and leadership is vital for mankind.

It is good for Christians to have political leaders as in the Bible e.g. have political leaders as in the bible e.g. king David.

Christians must realise that just as the soul is in the body, Christians are in the world and a healthy mind, said diesels in a healthy body therefore ones contribution to make ones environment peaceful is called for.

Political involvement is a must for Christians since God is political and is referred to 'as king, Lord he leads people into war and we are created in his image.

Political involvement helps in ascertaining justice which demands love and action and man is a political animal.

The Christian is a citizen and has a duty to support political activities in policy making, pay tax, elect leaders, and take up military services to defend one's country.

There is no clash between politics and Christianity all aim at bringing services to people.

Political involvement is a call for Christians-as a mission e.g. William Wilberforce while an MP in England set the motion against slave trade and brought it to abolition.

Politics as who gets what, when and how which focuses on the scores of the game i.e. who wins / looses.

Politics as a future reality.

Politics as continuity and change and politics ends.

For that matter may people call it a dirty game?

But church leaders have a right as citizens to influence government though it has no legal authority to do it over government.

Certainly in times of trouble or while seeking for elections politicians go to church leaders for support, prayers ,advice e.g. Museveni in 2001 elections is said to have gone to Kakande's church for blessings and was to pay something!

Both church and state are servants of God with responsibility on people; the church must appeal for inner change of life so that peace and justice are maintained.

The church is a living witness to organic loving community so concern should be on whole man; for that matter church political involvement is a must.

A good relationship between the church and the state is vital for peace and development. Comment on the statement with reference to Uganda.

The above statement is correct because of the following:-

There is no way development can take place without peace.

The church is an instrument for moral rehabilitation.

During the drafting of the 1995 constitution the church was represented, gave views that were adopted.

Church organizations are operating in the country creating employment for people.

Churches have opened up educational institutions.

The church has mediated in peace settlement e.g. Bishop Odama between government and Kony.

It is the duty of government to suppress the evil so the church can play a significant role in implementing to suppress evil.

Failure to cooperate means failure to cooperate with god.

It is the duty of the church to participate in political discussions geared towards peace and development.

Disobedience to state-means disobedience to god. (1 pet 2:7)

The church needs support from government to set up developmental projects just as government needs moral and physical support.

The church can support and persuade government to keep her promise e.g. government sponsorship at university.

The church can promote good relationship between government and multi-parties.

The church can influence the rule of law and implementation of Godly laws in the nation.

The church can narrow the gap between the rich and the poor.

The church has participated in the elections as observers e.g. UJCC (Uganda Joint Christian Council) and can comment on evils.

However, in its relationship,

The church should not be used to support evil.

The church should realize that it is the salt and should loose its saltiness.

The church should criticize any thing that brings injustice in society.

The church should not forget that though they are in this world, they belong to the heaven.

Therefore each of the institution of the church and government should be recognised and should know their limits.

Examine the role of the state authority in fulfilling God's plan for mankind

It is true the state has a role to fulfil God's plan for mankind.

It is the role of the state to make sure men and women of full age marry and make families. (Gen 2:24)

The state should make sure that citizens have decent standards of living e.g. good housing.

To provide the youth with satisfactory education to the needs of society (pro 22:6)

Should let citizens exercise their natural obligation to bear children according to their ability without compulsory birth control measures (Gen 1 :28)

It has to protect the citizens from a" forms of injustices such as grabbing their properties (Amos).

In 1 kings 21: 19 Elijah condemned Ahab for grabbing Naboth's vineyard.

Should let citizens exercise freedom of worship and conscience (exodus 3: 12).

Let the citizens exercise there rights such as freedom of speech and association.

Citizens should have aright to determine how they should be governed and not be disfranchised (1 sam 8).

Ensure that citizens are free from a" forms of oppression like torture, degrading punishment (Amos 5:1f).

Members of the family should have the right to privacy i.e. free from publicity (unfair) or constant checks.

The citizens should have a right to enjoy the benefits of scientific progress without undue interference.

It is the role of the state to guarantee security of lives and property in case of any attack by forces within or without.

The state should respect rights of the family and protect its moral interests e.g. should not make divorce easy in order to stabilize marriages (mk 10:9, mal2: 16).

The state should have some control over conditions of for marred women.

The citizens should be protected against immoral influences such as pornographic literature and films which encourage misuse of sex and violence.

The state should guarantee a minimum wage for the support of a person and his family (jm 5:4).

The state should put in place means where citizens can acquire a reason number of personal belongings.

The state should support institutions and initiatives which help to encourage family stability such as marriage, guidance and counselling.

The state should respect parental rights such as helping parents to educate children

The state informs its citizens about issues of national and global importance such as immunization of children, control against diseases.

The state should put in place laws which put in place laws which protect the minority and those who are marginalized such as the disabled, needy.

However, the state sometimes fails due to dictatorship

Fails to provide social services.

Embezzlement of public funds making it fail to achieve its goals e.g. former Vice President Spe Kazibwe and the valley dams in karamoja.

Unfair taxation which has made many out of busyness.

Unbalanced regional development.

Detention without trial where people are put in safe houses by Museveni's regimes equivalent to Amin's slaughter houses.

Rigging of election and violence during campaigns led by Kakooza Mutale. Declaring state religions at the expense of the church like it was in Sudan by the Arab regime leading to 21 years of war by Garang

Suppressing political opponents and desire not to leave power e.g. Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe and Museveni who has suppressed anyone coming up to take over power.

Discuss the view that although politics is not an integral question of our faith, it influences what we believe and do

Define politics and its role.

Outline how it influences b beliefs and actions.

Explain its limitations from Christian point of view.

Biblical teaching: state and church relation

Peter's principles

In Peter's teaching in his epistle (rev 2:13-17) he speaks of Christian's role as a citizen as follows:

He sees the authority of the state at all levels to be accepted." submit to every human authority; emperor-governors."

To be a good citizen is to be law abiding and to contribute to the economic, social, cultural, religious, and political role of community one belongs to.

The Christian should be ready to respond to public duty by state requirement.

He encourages Christians to honour the emperor (1 pet 2: 17) and it was at a time when the church was under Nero's persecutions. For him a ruler does not loose authority because of personal weakness (defects).

Peter's views are also expressed in the revelation when people faced persecution.

The author reveals that even the state is subject to judgment of God if they fail to govern according to God's will, the state can be destroyed (Rev 17).

Throughout the bible kingdoms rise and fall, leaders are deposed expressing that political structures are not permanent.

The Christian has to meet the two citizenship; the earthly political powers but has to prepare oneself to be a citizen of God's kingdom which must never be lost.

Whenever actions of government seem to be contrary to God's law church authority may be compelled to make statements on moral issues involved.

The church has a spiritual mission to build up the kingdom of God but should realize that earthly one is not proper then it may affect the heavenly one.

Some times, statesmen criticize the church for interfering in politics but as long as it is for maintaining established order, standing against injustice and evils of civil strife, protest is necessary to bring about liberty for their lives.

Paul's principles

In Rom 13: 1-7, 1Tim 2: 1-2, Tit 3: 1, pal states that a Christian has a duty to obey civil authority because legitimate authority comes from God.

Disobeying of civil authority is rebellion against God and this invites punishment.

The s ate has a role to maintain law and order and to protect the community from criminals.

The state has a duty to act as God wills for the wellbeing of all citizens.

According to Paul ones being a slave does not deny one rights e.g. in Philemon about Onesmus, a slave who had become a Christian.

Though he did not fight against slavery his teaching later brought it to abolition.

He encourages Christians to obey the state laws because they are not just aimed at punishment of citizens but to bring a bout justice.

He also encourages Christians to pray for leaders (1 Tim 2: 1-2) so that they can stay in peace.

He therefore wishes Titus to remind communities entrusted to him of civic obedience of which he also speaks of in Romans (Titus 3: 1)

Discuss the factors that led to the dictatorial regimes

Dictatorial regimes are a kind rule or a system of leadership which is undemocratic and does not allow citizens to participate in political affairs of their country but are ruled under the authority of one man or simple systems.

Political conflicts that arise between leaders e.g. between Obote and the Kabaka made him to dictate in order to strengthen his leadership.

Religious misunderstandings e.g. in Sudan when the Khartoum government established the Islamic law into all, due to resistances he became a dictator.

Geographical misunderstandings e.g. between Eritrea and Ethiopia.

Economic oppression and exploitations.

Unfair promotions e.g. Amin complained against the way Obote promoted langis leaving senior army officers.

Failure to recognize that all power comes from God.

Bad leadership during ones period of rule e.g. Hitler who hated all Jews and 6,000,000 killed with gas chamber.

Too much confidence e.g. leader thinks he is the only one capable which makes him cling to power especially most African leader.

Foreign influence e.g. Robert Mugabe became a dictator even chasing white settlers from their farms.

Lack of confidence i.e. when is not sure of what next.

Greed for power.

Bad policies e.g. the common man's chatter.

Discrimination based on tribe region and nepotism "It is now our turn," "twarire".

Social, cultural problems.

Rigged elections often lead to dictatorship to suppress opposing. Unconstitutional e.g. a man who had no reference to any constitution.

Political instability can bring dictatorship and suffering of people in order for the leader to exert his position.

Manipulation of the army e.g. what dictators do is to make them busy in wars, even send them out under the guise of peace mission, reshuffles for fear of sabotage

Suggest ways in which Christians can solve these problems.

Vote wisely

Christian's can be involved in leadership to influence the trend of events Advise rotten to correct errors in the party or political organization. Peace talks and round table discussion between conflicting parties.

To stick to the constitution.

Correct leader before they mess up too much. Solve social, cultural problems.

Stick to professional ethics.

Strengthen federal systems.

Seek international help.

Set economic embargoes.

If all fails resistance and war is the last resort to remove the system.

"Economic rather than political factor is responsible for the brain drain in Uganda"

Brain drain is the loss of highly skilled manpower to other countries for greener pastures.

It also means the emigration of scientists, technologists, academicians for better pay, equipment, conditions in another country.

The above statement is correct for Uganda at the present not in the past because of;

Spirit of adventure "nkuba kyeyo"

Self actualization where one feels he is being underpaid in response to the work done.

Government policy e.g. where MPs get over 8 millions and struggle for vehicles of 60 millions each yet a university lecture can't be paid beyond 3 millions.

Poor economic and social structures e.g. every year doctors go out because hospitals are not well equipped, payment is low and for teachers there is lack of text books, housing and low pay.

Low purchasing power of currency e.g. the dollar is equivalent to over 1800/=such that one realizes that one's pay is even less than 100dollars a month yet he could earn more than 10 dollars out side per day

Socially where there is inequality where like in Uganda good jobs go to westerners.

High cost of living where ones salary cannot make one to survive. this is worsened by the fact that governments cannot afford to pay a living wage. Overworking and poor working conditions.

Famine e.g. Somali which has often been hit due to droughts.

Level of income being low and irregular payment of salaries and wages.

Ho "lever. brain drain has also been caused by political reasons i.e. some flee from or political persecution.

So e are politically disgruntled.

Insecurity in some parts of the country e.g. northern Uganda. So e run out due to criminal acts.

Citizens rights and duties

A citizen is a member of any political community and has allegiance to

a particular society. He/she is a person who is entitled to full rights in country either by birth or registration.

A citizen has rights and duties to observe in order to enjoy citizenship.

The state has a duty to uphold and to protect arising from damental human rights as listed below;-

The right to life.

The right to the means to support life; adequate food, shelter, clothing and reasonable amenities.

Right to education and upbringing appropriate to the needs and possibilities of family and society one belongs to.

Right to work; to provide personal necessities and meet responsibilities.

Right to marry and raise a family.

Right to associate with others in matters of common interest e.g. belonging to trade unions or political party or social/cultural grouping.

The right to freedom of speech and information/press.

The right to personal freedom or liberty.

The right to religious liberty, freedom of worship and conscience.

The above rights and others are enshrined in the universal declaration of

human rights proclaimed in 1948 by United Nations and in 1976 they came into force. They are 30 articles al summed up into 3 significant instruments.

The international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights.

The optional protocol on the covenant on civil and political rights; and it is the duty of the state to guarantee these rights.

Rights of a citizen

The citizen has rights which must be respected by the state as listed below:

No citizen should be unjustly deprived of his life (right to life).

If accused of an offence, a citizen is entitled to fair trial and should not be arrested without good reason.

A citizen has a right tom expect the state to develop economic policies which will give him a fair chance of being able to work profitably or funding employment which will provide a just wage.

A citizen has aright to join a trade union, political party or some other form of social/ cultural grouping to be respected by the state.

A citizen has the right to get pension having worked long in any organization.

Has a right to worship or not worship at all.

He has a right to freedom of expression without doing any harm or instability to the state.

He has a right to marry if he wishes and raise a family.

He has a right to education.

He has a right to medical facilitation.

He has a right to security of persons and property.

Freedom of the press but usually this is violated by censorship of state powers.

Children have a right to be protected from influences that can distort their physical health and social/psychological welfare.

Duties of a citizen

To recognize and respect authority of the state towards promotion of the welfare of the community.

He/she has to respect national symbols; anthem, flag, court of arms, currency.

Respect the rights and freedoms of others.

Has a duty to prevent criminal acts by others in interest of public order e.g. a man who leaves a key in the car unlocked is tempting to commit crimes.

Should recognize that the authority of the state is allowed by god so the duty to be orderly and be a peace maker.

To respect those in authority for the benefit of the whole community through the whole community through loyalty, genuine care but also criticize what is wrong and readiness to contribute to improvement in the wellbeing of a community.

Participate in political life of a community by voting and giving views for the welfare of the community.

One participates as a politician has a duty to work as a servant of the person; with clear convictions to stand for what is right.

To cooperate with lawful agencies in the maintenance of law and order.

Has to protect vulnerable persons and children against any abuse; ill-treatment, harassment.

In case a state or political authority has lost its usefulness it is his/ her to rebel, replace, and make passive resistance to bring down such regime. Force therefore can be used in extreme cases.

It is the duty of a citizen to pay tax to make it possible the provision of public services and communities for common good.

Has the duty to defend and render national services to ones country. This helps the state to defend and give security to all.

In times of emergency, special duties might be required of a citizen to help a community in crisis.

Has to work for economic development and prosperity of the nation.

To create, protect a clean and healthy environment.

Under what conditions can a citizen be justified to use violence to get rid of unjust government?

A government is an organization that has monopoly of force over the people in a particular territory.

Government has a role of defending people's rights; it is for the welfare and responsibility to all the people and management of economic progress and provision of resources.

A Citizen should not only be sensitive to the functions of government but also the abuses of such power in Co1 1: 16 power is a good creation of God.

Power is not sovereign; all authority is given by god and therefore rulers must submit to the rule of Jesus in order to exercise justice and seek peace on earth.

A citizen is therefore justified to use violence to get rid of tyranny governments for it is contrary to God's will as it violates human rights.

In the absence of justice when the leadership breeds instability and no peace it be removed by force.

Citizens can use violence to over come oppressive governments when its laws are contrary to God's standards.

Where there is detention without trial, arbitrary arrests, tortures, murders like in most military governments there is need for liberation.

To be subject to authority does not mean obedience (total) to every command. Jesus' disciples stood against this "we must obey God rather than men" (acts 5:29).

Jesus, the example for Christians, used violence to overcome injustice especially at the temple.

But if violence may bring worse results then citizens should think twice.

As noted Jesus angrily cleansed the temple and thus engaging aggressiveness, resistance against the evil by driving out animals with a whip, turned tables of money changers and calling them thieves.

Therefore where there is absence of righteousness, anger can be used for its restoration.

In violence, love must be the goal, in order to end oppression for it calls for liberation and justice.

In this way Christian conscience should allow him to accept revolutions that bring about change for better and god's word should be availed to the oppression and the oppressed.

Therefore, violence must be both the means of love and the end of 10 e.

Negotiations should be tried first but where it has failed violence comes in as a last resort.

If the citizen is a Christian, before violent action is taken, prayer is necessary is taken, prayer is necessary to get God's will done because certain situation are for purposes of God.

There must be a clear directions before violence is taken:

If government agents take the law into their own hands.

If the Christian is assured of success in their agitations.

If force is used to oppress the masses.

If there is bloodshed in the country.

If the citizens have been patient for too long and government does no s change for the better but instead continues to create more suffering to the people.

Account for the violations of human rights in Uganda.

Human rights are the rights by the virtue of being a human being one is entitled to have. However, these rights have been violated in the following ways:-

Many governments of Obote, Amin and Museveni (1986-2005) banned political party activities.

The use of the gun and the soldiers to rule of people.

Employment opportunities basing on sectarian tendencies; nepotism and regions.

Unwarranted arrests, detentions without trial in Nile mansions, Makindye and safe houses.

Massive killings, tortures, rapes especially in war areas (Luweero, Teso, northern Uganda).

Burning people in train wagons in Teso at Mukura by the NRA led by Rwigyema.

Kichwamba massacres when the technical school was attacked by the ADF rebels.

Burning of people in the church at Kanungu by Kibwetere.

Soldiers robbing property from the civilians.

Thugs attacking and robbing vehicles.

Abolition of parliament and rule of law.

Rule of proclamations and decrees e.g. Nakivubo pronouncements of move to the left and Tororo when Asians were given 90 days by Amin.

At road blocks people were undressed, tortured and robbed of their property.

No independence of the judiciary when Ben Kiwanuka was murdered by Amin.

Drug abuse is on the increase leading to crimes.

Aids victim who consciously give it to others (infect).

There is wide spread corruption, even in government circle e.g. the global fund money by the minister of health, Jim Muhwezi.

Desire to acquire using any means e.g. through child sacrifice.

Political instabilities especially in the north.

There has been a lot of carnage on the roads through accidents and there are only 360 traffic officers national wide tom combat such offence.

Decline in religious morals.

Wide spread poverty especially in villages.

There are many difficult ideas from the western world such as pornography, prostitution, lesbianism destroying morals.

There is still widespread illiteracy especially in rural areas.

There are frequent cases of mob justice which goes on unchecked

b) What steps has NRM done to solve the problems of human rights violation?

NRM subscribe to the universal declaration of human rights and has done the following:-

  • Set up human rights commission.
  • Set up public accounts committee
  • Set up a commission probing into corruption of the police.
  • Set up a judicial commission.
  • Freedom of expression is available.
  • Tried to bring peace and security in most parts of the country.
  • Set entandikwa and poverty alleviation to improve on household incomes.
  • Passed a bill against sectarianism.
  • Passed referendum act (in 2000 and 2005).
  • Set up UPE to enable school going children to study.
  • Set up UPPET for low income parents to have children in secondary school.
  • Has tried to respect court rulings independency of the judiciary.
  • Put in place the office of the IGG.
  • Health care for all by rehabilitating health centres and putting up all health centers and carried out immunization.
  • Tried to democratize politics through frequent elections.
  • Set in place the 1995 constitution.
  • Protected vulnerable people from servitude e.g. the young, women, and people with disabilities.
  • Liberalized trade and promoted privatization.
  • Encouraged foreigners to invest.

However, the regime has been responsible for abuse of human rights as:-

  • Kandoya
  • Unwarranted arrests, detention in safe houses and people
  • Banning political party activity from 1986 to 2005/6.
  • Invading neighbouring countries e.g. Rwanda, DRC.
  • Failed to combat the war in northern Uganda for over 2 ears.

"Many committed Christians do not agree with the policy of universal conscription in the military service" As Christian Comment

Conscription into the military service is the act of making compulsory military training regardless of the fact whether one likes or not. Some Christians feel that it should be a free choice of someone to decide to join the military service.

They feel it should not be universal or compulsory.

The nature of service requires the violation of one of the Ten commandments (6th) "do not kill"

The service requires fighting and assaulting another person and mercy or kindness is shown.

One must be ready to withstand harsh conditions.

It requires undergoing harsh military conditions during training and this requires one who is physically fit.

(b) Suggest other ways a Christian can contribute to the security of their country

By paying taxes to enable the state to cater for the few in the military service

Engaging in the production so that the country is economically strong

Ensuring that there is law and order in the country.

Have a spirit of nationalism, where one has the country at heart / has love for one's country.

Talking to and discouraging all those who want to cause insecurity in the country.

Praying for political leaders.

Preaching love for one another.

Ensuring that the is law and order in the country.

Great venues of negotiations with rebels e.g. Bishop Odama in the northern war conflict.

Report to authority wrong element in society.

The Family of Nations

It is in the 20th C that men have come to realize their human and interdependence than never before.

The has been facilitated by the communication and transport ,modern scientific discoveries ,space exploration and world wars all have helped to bring people together.

This has led to the establishment of organizations like the United Nations organizations; with intent to about unity and desire for world wide peace.

Some smaller organizations based on political, social or cultural aspects have been put in place. The understanding here is that we are first of all human beings before we are citizens.

To avoid interferences various movements like civil rights movements in USA, the treatment of dissidents in USSR, plight of refugees are all major concerns of the world.

Biblical concepts

The bible gives guidelines for the conduct of international affairs as follows:-

In OT, there is a deep sense of unity of human race in Isaiah 2: 1-4 when the prophet talks of all nations coming together to worship one God.

Jeremiah was called to be a "Prophet to the nations" (Jer 1: 5) which all talks of fundamental unity of human race. ~

In the NT, Paul's preaching (Act 17:26) in Athens and in Rom 3:23-24 "all have sinned," express human race as one.

In Jn. 3: 16-17 "God sent his only son into the world ... to be saved through him" and in Mt 28: 18-20, Acts 1:8 preaching should be to all nations. Christians therefore have to bear witness to all mankind.

War and peace

Peace is the degree of calmness mentally, physically, spiritual of a person. It is a situation when one is in good relationship with oneself, neighbours and the whole surrounding. War, on the other hand, is the opposite of peace and it involves violation of rights, suffering, death etc. The presence of war therefore leads to no peace as illustrated below:

War leads to death, killings of the people involved and innocent ones.

War, therefore, leads to sufferings of the innocent people who are left homeless or in internally displaced places.

War leads to human rights violations where rape, torture are involved.

These defeated in war are imprisoned or become prisoners of wars and face great tortures and suffering.

During wars there is no law and order, no proper governance, no justice and a situation of chaos.

Essential commodities become difficult to get sometimes caused by looting, stealing and hoarding.

Where industries are destroyed; there is unemployment, no salaries / ages can be received.

Wars bring in dictators who rise to power like Kabila, Amina (all who co e 0 power by use of the gun).

There is violation of people's peace even if they had been settled in their environment they become internally displaced.

"The absence of war does not necessarily mean peace" As a Christian discuss.

No, the absence of war does not necessarily mean peace because peace is both mental and physical. There are other factors that affect peace viz:-

If government does not give freedom of worship, expression, association, there will be no peace.

If there is poverty and the means to livelihood for one to survive happiness.

When there are national calamities e.g. earthquakes, floods which lead to displacement from peoples' settlement.

In case one is unemployed and lacks survival he /she cannot have peace. Illiteracy and ignorance undermines peace in society.

Where there is discrimination either tribal or minority there is no peace e.g. Tutsi vs Hutu.

Quarrels at home, fights, divorces lead to no peace.

In situations of misuse of drugs, alcohol, marijuana can cause dangers and insecurity.

When people are faced by terrorism such as the Sept 11, 2001 bombing in USA, 2006 bombing of the train in Britain and called to face more wars. The AIDS scourge has brought a lot of suffering and people who become victims lack peace.

If the government does not give freedom of worship, expression, the press, association there will be no peace.

Exploitation of workers.

Lack of food e.g. hunger and famine) and other basic needs. Unemployment.

Religious conflicts.

Loss of dear ones.

In schools, where there is bullying.

Failure in examinations, interviews.

Losses in business, agriculture production. Failure to have intimate friends.

Lack of democracy and political stability.

Another obstacle to peace is the tension between differing ideologies such as Marxism vs capitalism where those involved are suspicious of the other. Economic oppression by richer countries over the poorer ones by dominating them: organisations like OAU, EEC are formed as a step forward in collaboration between nation over economic issues.

Unfaithfulness breeds untruthfulness and leads to psychological insecurity.


To ensure effective peace in the world there has been an international disarmament where certain issues can be solved since weapons of mass destruction have been banned for use (not to be used) there.

There is also a process of destroying weapons of mass destruction like Libya has been forced to do.

On the issue of disarmament there is present policy in USA, European nations and USSR on 'balance of power'.

The SALT (strategic Arms Limitation Treaty talks attempts to reach agreement on maxi number of war planes, tanks, armoured vehicles weapons of various kinds and total force by each country.

There is also an aspect of JUST WAR; where the existence of a community is so seriously threatened that it may not survive unless it fights.

This is done for self defence in face of unjustified aggression like the Sept 11 th 2001 attack justified USA to go to war in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Secondly, a just war is used as the last resort in situation of human oppression when all means of change a situation have been unsuccessful.

Christians feel that weapons of mass destruction must be banned. T Fights should be restricted as much as possible.

War is always are for it results in killings of innocent people.

If a state is forced to have a just war, it has 110 alternative it has to choose between two evils; this war can be a lesser evil though not always the best.

Jesus encouraged forgiveness of one another in orderto get peace. T He preached love for neighbours.

Peace is God's will for mankind.

Jesus excluded war and use of violence in the establishment of the kingdom (Mt 26:52- 3).

He entered Jerusalem on an Ass to express peace.

When the existence of the community is threatened that it may not survive aggression unless it fights e.g. Rwanda genocide of 1994 (total cleansing of Tutsi had been employed).

As a last resort in situation of human oppression.

When there is a state inspired murder of innocent people.

When fundamental human rights are violated and there is no hope of addressing them.

If one does it for self defence, without which one looses life.

When all means of solving the problem has been employed and failed.

Just war can be used to force rigid policies change.

Jesus used force to cleanse the temple (Mk; 11; 15-17)

War can be used to liberate the suffering people like it was the case in Uganda during Amin's regime ( see ex 17;8f)

If there are chances of success if not do not try or may be more destructive.

War can be used to rescue others like when Abraham used it to rescue his nephew.

If the UN Security Council allows it or is involved.

In case of destroying weapons of mass destruction e.g. war against Saddam.

When the society has accepted the war and it is far the benefit of society.

If a dictator has broken the UN resolutions.

If the participants freely join without force.

When the constitution has been violated.

The war should bring psychological and emotional satisfaction.

The public must be alerted before the war starts.

During war human rights must be protected.

If those to fight will have self discipline.

When people are turned down.

When people lack necessities when leaders are enjoying e.g. when they are corrupt.

When there is separation of powers.

However, there is no such a thing as just war because all are destructive.

War itself is application of injustice to other party to promote one's interests.


This is a belief that war is always wrong are not willing to join fighting.

Some Christian churches take up this position e.g. friends church and Mennonites who insist that members of their church must not fight. Instead some volunteer to undertake duties, very dangerous and unpleasant, such as giving medical assistance to those injured and burying those who have been killed. This, however, requires courage

Revolutions and armed resistances

Are other methods some people use for liberation of the poor from oppressive and unjust regimes

Every attempt is made to remove by force of arms, rebellion, resistance cause revolutions.

However, there are other ways used to remove oppression and injustice such as boycotts, refusal to use public services, refusal to pay taxes, protest marches, strikes, withdraw labour, determined negotiations and dialogue or else, peaceful political pressures.

If, however, all fail, and no alternative left, armed resistance/revolution follows.

But in case of a just war it will mean that the people have been forced into a situation of choosing between two evils. This stand is recognised by the churches e.g.

In 1969 the world council of churches stated that 'if all else failing church respect resistance ... to eliminate tyranny.

In 1958, the Lambeth conference of the Anglican churches stated. "war as a method of settling international disputes is incompatible with teaching and example of Christ

These two views show difficult in choice of war to solve problems.

Peace in the Bible

Ø Rom 12:20 we are to feel the hungry / enemies.

Ø Through Christ came peace and reconciliation (Luke 1 :79,2:14, 19:38, John 14:27, 20:21, Eph 2:14-17).

Ø We should work positively for peace (Mt 5:9). > Real peace involves justice (Mic 6:8).

Ø We should not be deceived by false peace (Jer. 6:14).

Ø Jesus excluded war and use of violence as a means of establishing his kingdom (In 18:36, Mt. 26:52-3).

Ø His entrance in Jerusalem fulfilled the prophesy of Zechariah. He was a messiah of peace.

Ø A Christian's duty is to work within a situation of peace and justice not only in own nation but the world as a whole.

Ø The cost of our reconciliation with God was Christ's crucifixion and death and Luke 9:23 indicate the cost of following him as a peace maker.

Ø Jesus gave disciples commandment of love (Jh 13:34).

Ø In order to work for peace we need to understand what the NT teachers about love, in sense of a gape and are prepared to put it into practice in face of injustice, oppression and mistrust.

"In 2005, Bishops of Northern Uganda decided to sleep on the streets because of suffering of people in northern Uganda"

Ø It was a demonstration of love and concern for the suffering.

Ø It was a result of failing to have peaceful means with kony.

Ø It was a challenge to political leaders to do take up the issue of the suffering seriously.

Ø They were demonstrating how Jesus suffered for others.

Ø It was a demonstration that wants peace for all.

Ø To attract national and international sympathy and concern for the displaced people in the north.

  • It was to make an appeal to Kony to be more human and think of how he has made people suffer and therefore need for re visitation of his programs.
  • It is biblical we should suffer with the suffering people.
  • It was a demonstration of brotherhood of Christ.

However, real peace cannot be achieved through war.

  • The Bishops could use other means for dialogue other than sleeping on the street.
  • The church should work hand in hand with government to end the war.
  • Appeal to international community to risque the situation e.g. A U, UNO etc.

What are the aims of strategic Arms limitation Treaties?

There has been a struggle of world powers like USA and USSR to catch up with each other in the manufacture of deadly weapons (Arms race.)

The arms race began in 1945 when USA used the first atomic bomb on Japan (Nagasaki), USSR also produced it 4 years later in 1949.

When USA produced the hydrogen bomb, Russia also produced too.

From 1953 Britain, France, China, South Africa, India, Israel started producing them.

Strategic arms are weapons which reach the target in an enemy territory from landing sites in one territory/ sea. These include missiles, bombs.

SALT began in 1969 between Russia and USA. Because nations realized their citizens were being terrorized and lived in fear of war.

They also realized that nuclear war can lead to no other victor.

That war can be reached by mutual understanding.

What are the possible causes of armed conflicts in the world today?

Armed conflicts are wars that express misunderstanding which can be between nations or groups within same country and these are caused by a number of factors:-

On international scene are varying ideologies such as capitalism. communism, socialism which lead to hatred, ganging against one another.

Misleads to mistrust and fear between such countries.

This is also worsened by imbalanced development in many countries, some developed than others bringing in aspects of superiority and inferiority.

This rapid social and economic differences and changes between the rich and poor cause more competitions.

As far as superiority aspect the issues of military, economic, under taking make some wish for a time to test their fighting equipment to prove superiority.

Sometimes, with in the country itself in case of growing unemployment it remains survival for the fittest no desire to remove a regime so as to create space for one self.

Uncontrolled greed / lust for power make some organize rebel activities in order to attain power.

It can also be unfair distribution of national income based on nepotism, tribalism and other sectarian grounds.

Social-economic discriminations whereby jobs are given to/on tribal ground/basis.

Unjustified politics victimization whereby due to such situation one is forced to take up arms.

Varying political vies e.g. simple party Vs multiparty.

Undemocratic governments which turn to dictatorship.

Economic oppression, e.g. exploitation of women by underpaying them or hard conditions at places of work.

Attempts in some countries to establish state religions.

Moral decay and decline of religious convictions.

How the church can intervene in such circumstances

The church should try to reconcile conflicting parties, countries.

The church sensitizes varying groups and countries that war is evil.

Christians should not practice/ participate in armed struggles to achieve justice because it is evil, they should leave it to God to intervene.

Violence is not a sure means of achieving peace as Jesus told Pilate.

Church should express Jesus' example when he rejected Peter's attempt to use his sword to secure his freedom.

Government should know that it's obligation is to protect it's citizens and not to perpetuate war against them.

Governments should be urged to introduce popular and acceptable policies.

The international court of justice should condemn the manufacture and possession of fire arms/weapons of mass destruction and war it's self.

In self defence Christians can indirectly be involved in armed conflicts by supporting the side being unjustly attacked.

Some can sacrifice their lives in armed conflicts to save lives of others.

Continue to love enemies with hope to attain good relationship through peace talks.

Nevertheless, pacifists feel Christians should not actually join real fighting to get peace but pray for God to intervene.

Race, Relations and Racial Prejudice

A race is a classification of people according to colour of their skins, hair type, shape of their face; While race relations refers to the relationship between them/different races.

Racism therefore is the belief that some races are better than others and that people of other races are of a lower rank like it was in South Africa where whites claimed Superiority, followed by coloureds and African blacks the coast in the category.

Racial prejudice is to have a preconceived idea of a particular race being superior to others.

Racial prejudice creates discriminations and there are many forms of discriminations.

Examine the forms of discrimination found in independent states.

Social discrimination is the preconceived idea/prejudice that one has for other people are therefore having a negative attitude. These are:-

Religious discrimination where one can be looked down upon basing on ones religious background; and is seen as lost, ignorant and looked down upon

Cultural discrimination where some communities claim superiority over others in various ideas and practices e.g. the Karamojong in Uganda are looked at as backward while Baganda look at others as lower class.

Sexual discrimination where women are looked at as inferior.

Tribal discrimination where one discriminated on basis of tribe e.g. Baganda vis-avis Banyoro.

There can be discrimination based on nationality where some na ions feel they are more developed. e.g. western countries Vs third world.

Ethnic discrimination/minority discrimination e.g. Tutsi and Hutus.

There can also be educational discrimination based on one's academic acquisition.

Other forms are:-

Age, social, professional and regional.

The basic feeling which underlies all prejudice and discrimination in fear which can be consciously or unconsciously.

All forms of prejudice/discrimination are a defensive reaction b underneath there in fear.

Biblical teaching and how to overcome prejudice, by the church

The Bible has a lot of teachings about relationships with others and the command to love God is followed by the command to love our neighbours.

The parable of the Good Samaritan in Luke 10:25-37 has a clear teaching on which a neighbour is to another person. One's neighbour is not necessarily one of the next door, relative, same colour but a fellow human being (Gen 1 :26- 7, Act 2:6-12,8:26-40, 10: 1-48, Mk 3:31- 34,7:24-30, Jn 4: 1-30, Lk 14:12-24) and Gal 3:28).

In Gal 3:28, "there is neither male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus."

Paul saw the rigid state in Roman Empire on race and all forms of discriminations. In other words there is neither white nor black, Marxist nor capitalist, man or woman for we are all members of the human race for whom Jesus died.

Our bodies are the temples of the Lord and discrimination defies us before God.

The Church should work for the well being of all i.e. should be exemplary.

The Church should encourage love for one another (1 cor 13: 1-13).

Give basic knowledge to all to avoid educational discrimination.

Ordain female priests, deacons and bishops.

Provide employment and advocate for fair pay;

Preach against discrimination and emphasis equality.

Discourage preferential treatment as taught by James.

Have fair taxation.

The Refugee Problem

Refugees are persons outside their country of nationality because they have well founded fear of persecution because of race, nationality or political opinion. Because of various reasons people are forced to leave their homes, country to seek safety in another country


Wars e.g. by 1978 about one million people whose homes had been in Ogaden region of the horn of Africa had been forced to leave their homes due to war which threatened their lives.

Riots in 1976 thousands of people fled into Botswana from South Africa after riots in Soweto and then from Zimbabwe as the political situation deteriorated there.

Persecution; in 1978 about 50,000 Angolans fled their own country into Zaire for fear of persecution.

Political victimization by those in power like the case of Besigye he had to flee to South Africa for about 4 years.

Racial discrimination on health ground especially Aids victims.

Civil wars like the ones in Rwanda between Tutsi and Hutus 1959, 1961, 1994 etc.

Economic discrimination where the rich force the poor from their homes to other places.

Religious persecution like it was in southern Sudan due to the Islamic law and later the rebellion led by Garang.

Rigid cultural values e.g. female mutilation in Sebei, circumcision in Bugisu.

Government policy; emigration laws

Sexual discrimination

Environmental causes e.g. hot deserts, drought - foreign occupation and aggression e.g. Spanish Sahara.

Natural catastrophes e.g. caused by earthquakes, land slides, pests and diseases.

Love for adventure.

Age discrimination

Professional discrimination

Class discrimination.

Problems Faced By Refugees

Refugees in most cases face serious problems when they arrive in a new country to which they have fled

Usually they lack basic needs since they lack any.

They face poverty and means of livelihood.

Little or no chance of employment opportunity.

Their presence is itself a problem to the host country e.g. In Kenya Somalis are repatriated.

That is why various organizations come in to help them e.g. UNHCR; who help them to settle down, provide for needs and at times arrange for their return to their former country of origin when it is safe for them to.

Ways of Solving Refugee Problems

  • Encourage fairness in election.
  • Attack foreign investors
  • Modernization and diversification of agriculture / economy.
  • Encourage political stability though negotiation, peace talks.
  • Preach love, reconciliation and forgiveness
  • Practice democracy
  • Formulate first laws
  • Avoid all forms of discrimination
  • Advise political leaders
  • Respect human rights
  • Pray for God's intervention
  • Attract foreign investors to establish projects.
  • Have fair education for all which is practical.
  • There is need to revisit some cultural beliefs and practices which dehumanize people e.g. female mutilation
  • People to love one another

Teach people that all are crated from the same God.

Rights of Refugees and Duties Expected

They have a right to be settled but often a far distance from boarders of their own country.

Right to be repatriated voluntarily on agreement with countries to their home country.

Are not and should not be subjected to discrimination on grounds of race, nationality, membership of particular social group or political opinion. Arrangement can be made to provide them employment through UNHCR.

Can only be expelled if found / proved guilty of coming aims.

They are entitled to security once they are back home.

On their return home they are entitled to all rights like any other citizen.

But they also have duties-like to abide with the laws of the new country.

They are not allowed to carry out any subversive activities against any country including one's country of origin.

Not allowed to attack any country either by arms, press or radio.

Not supposed to join the national army of that country of refugee.

Should obtain permits from relevant authorities to be allowed to stay.

The Question of Immigrants

An immigrant is a person who has come into a foreign country to live their permanently. In some countries there are tough laws to prevent illegal immigrants ) e.g. in North Africa those who succeed to cross to Europe are at times deported back.

Today the question of immigrants is common and on the increase from place to place, country to country.


They may be political pressures.

They may also be economic reasons.

It can be caused by harsh conditions which put pressure on one to move away e.g. people is deserts/ semi- deserts that are pastoralists move to look for pastures.

The issue of international trade makes people look for places where trade can enable them develop.

  • Some migrate in search for jobs or freezer pastures.
  • Intermarriages.
  • Migrants therefore have a problem to be accepted and this is worsened by belonging to a minority group.
  • Many states today have small minority groups who have different racial origins from the rest of the nation but are citizens.
  • Minority groups have a right to maintain their identity.
  • They also have a duty to be loyal to citizens of their state.
  • One of the valuable unifying factor in a state is the acceptance of a common language which makes communication between citizens effectives; sometimes this is known as national language.

Discuss the values and limitations of democracy

Democracy is a situation where people exercise their freedom of choice, expression, opinion etc.

It is also a government of the people for the people and by the people.

  • It enables people to freely elect their leaders.
  • It enables people to freely express their views / opinion.
  • People are able to enjoy rights and freedoms such as:
  • A right to worship.
  • A right to elect and be elected.
  • A right to freedom of movement.
  • A right to be innocent until one is proved guilty by the courts of law.
  • A right to own property.
  • A right to freedom of association.
  • A right to liberty


Some people misuse their freedom e.g. abusing one another through the press; campaigns.

A right to be considered innocent before one is proved quilt by courts of law has led to loss of files at police station, and therefore destruction of evidence.

  • It has led to exploitation of the poor.
  • A right to liberty has led to drug abuse and alcoholism.
  • Writing papers which are intended to criticize government.
  • Some magazines are phonographic and not educative so endanger the morals of the youth.
  • Makes people corrupt in offices.
  • It makes some people mistreat others.
  • Failure to preserve peace in the country.
  • Mixed communities which lead to cultural disorganization or dilution.
  • Failure to choose right candidate during elections.

What are the causes of interstate conflicts?

Interstate conflicts refer to misunderstandings which often cause wars between states. There are various causes.


It can be brought about by territorial expansionist policy e.g. from Kenya during his rule and it almost caused a war between.

It can be caused by imperialism e.g. Angola and South Africa South Africa and Cuba + Soviet Union support Angola.

It can be caused by ideological difference among states.

Change in national leadership can bring about interstate co took over power it immediately brought conflicts with Tanzania.

Harbouring and support of dissidents and rebels of other countries e.g. Sudan ¬Ethiopia case.

  • Interference in the internal affairs of sister states e.g. South Africa and Seychelles Isles.
  • Economic imbibitions of some dominance of one state over during EAC times.
  • The division of some ethnic communities by colonial boundaries.
  • It can be caused by border conflicts e.g. Ethiopia and Eritrea.

If one leader is a war monger e.g. at one time president Moi said 'when you greet Museveni you must not use both hands" because he is unpredictable.

b) How are these conflicts eventually resolved?

  • Some are resolved by the African union arbitration.
  • By outright military confrontation.
  • Organizing coups and change of government to bring up a personality who may favour peace.
  • Bilateral talks may be used to resolve conflicts.
Encouraging regional economic and political cooperation.