Introduction to Leisure

Leisure is a word that comes from a Latin word "Licere" which means 'to be free.'

It refers basically to freedom from gainful employment i.e. freedom from activities that one does to earn a living.

Leisure is also defined as a time at our disposal to use as we choose without being bound necessity. It is also that relaxed activity that releases both physical and mental tension when boredom is done away with.

Types of Leisure

There are basically two types:-

Active leisure:

When one is directly involved in doing something e.g. play football, sports, indoor games like Ludo, snakes and ladders, chess, draft, read a novels, conversing etc.

Passive leisure:

When one is indirectly active/ inactive e.g. listening to a radio, watching TV/ Video (Here one is being entertained).

There is also need to have moral judgement to derive a learning experience depending on age, status and time to be used.


Leisure activities trains people for life e.g. games and sports can be taken up one's career as sports officers, soccer stars e.g. Maradona.

It is for personal refreshment for replacing energies used up during work.

Leisure enables one to fulfil the order of nature: the rhythm of seasons and rhythm of day and night as we have the rhythm of waking up and sleeping.

Dances, beer parties, initiations and other celebrations give time for refreshment. Some may be vigorously active like games and dances but provide a change of activity which refreshes us.

Through leisure one releases tension.

Through leisure one can develop talents such as writing poems, singing, play, discussions, and conversation.

Mr. Kiprotich through leisure, developed his talent to international level

Creation of friendship and relationship, fellowship through clubs, societies.

People can also learn through story telling, reading magazines.

Through travel to new places, we discovered new things, meet new people, cha-environment which all increase on ones knowledge.

"A sea gull which flies further sees furthest" or 'travel is the best educator.'

Ones imaginative power is at its peak since during this time inventions can be achieve. Today leisure time has become an industry or commercial enterprise.

Leisure brings man closer to fellow man against enmity.

Leisure activities relax the mind.

Leisure activities also help in glorifying God through worship and praise as offered to God.

National holidays help nationals to remember important national events and promote unity.

Traditional and modern attitudes to leisure

In African tradition, leisure activities were communal and everybody contributed while in modern society they are individualistic both in contribution and attendance.

In African tradition, everyone participated in leisure activities but in modern society not all participate but many involves themselves in passive leisure where they pay and just watch e.g. watching videos, TV and listen to radios.

Activities involved skills like singing, dancing wrestling, musical instruments while today those talented are actors while those who lack the skill are entertained.

In African tradition, it was not commercialized and no need to pay in order to watch, it was free of charge; today they are expensive and those without the means do not attend 1 watch e.g. football can go as much as 100,000 per head.

Due to commercialization the poor cannot afford to attend; yet in African tradition, no attendance was a sign of ant social behaviour except for good reason.

In African tradition, it was interwoven with work, they worked as they sang, told stories while today it is separated e.g. Sunday 1 Sabbath is a day of rest when people go for worship.

In African tradition there was no set day for worship but worshiped anywhere, anytime also depending on situation though they had designated places 1 times.

In the evenings; stories, proverbs, riddles at fire places by family or clan heads but today people get stories through reading books or through watching.

This is where community celebrations e.g. agriculture, initiations, weddings were all moments of joy and education unlike today.

Leisure was enjoyed according to rhythm of the day while today it is just planned. There was no discrimination in the leisure time activities while today the rich attend expensive ones, and the poor cheap one or at all and thus creating classes.

Leisure activities did not need special invitations e.g. beer, marriage parties while today invitations are limited and with cards to be presented at reception to be part of the celebration.

All leisure activities were valuable in African tradition while today some are destructive e.g. blue movies, war films, and romantic novels, invention of weapons and bombs of mass destruction.

In Africa, there were vital dances which had religious, social significance while modern dances are just for entertainment and often change style, fashion but ritual remain unchanged.

Leisure activities were determined by social economic needs and holidays unlike today.

In African tradition, adolescents mixed up freely with opposite sex in health relationship but today fornication and adultery because of permissiveness which was abominable in Africa.

However, leisure is taken as time to relax and refresh one's body and mind.

Talents are experienced and exposed.

People in bath develop social attitudes, with people and friends.

During leisure one thinks deeply and exercise power of imagination and creativity Leisure is educative in bath.

Today the length of working and therefore leisure is determined by needs of sac' which is similar to the past. But the disadvantage today is that people may not k what to do with leisure so end up using it in ant-social ways.

Biblical concept

There is a religious concept of leisure because leisure means 'holy day' as follows:

Gad rested on the seventh day after creation in six days (Gen 2:2) .

In the Decalogue, Israelites were to rest an Sabbath as a holy day (Ex. 31 :15, 20f).

They observed deliverance from Egypt (EX 5: 12-15).

Sabbath day related to fellowship and friendship in community; a day of offering that giving.

Old Testament feasts related to pastoral and agricultural observances and commemorated religious events in Israel history e.g. day of atonement as a do repentance.

Scribes used leisure time to acquire wisdom and self improvement (Ecc 38:24) .

There is jay in worship Gad (Ps 112: 1) often done an Sabbath (Lk 4: 16) .

Jesus was involved in a wedding at Canaa in Galilee (In 2:1f)

Jesus enjoyed and desired to make friends; he was a friend to Lazarus, Mary and Martha often visited them (Lk 10:38, Jn 11 :5) .

In his teaching there was need for leisure time (Mk 6:31) "came away by yourselves a lonely place and rest a while."

Jesus loved fellowship of shared meals; weddings, reception at levis house (Lk 5 meal at Simean's house (Lk 7:36) and he also. asked far hospitality at Zach "Behold, a glutton, drunkard and a friend of tax collectors and sinners (Mk 11 :19)

Problems associated with leisure

Leisure has became a major problem because of the following:-

Boredom: in modern world those who feel bored cannot think of what to do so hang between African tradition and modernity lacking sense of direction.

Demand for any kind of leisure I entertainment without assessing the dangers a

Leisure is associated with many social evils especially in activities such as drinking, smoking drug abuse with their side effects.

Leisure often times lead to dangerous crimes like vandalism, misuse of sex, as it is said, an idle mind is the devil's workshop!

Same leisure activities have became expensive such as sports and games require uniforms and other equipments.

Leisure can bring tensions in families as one may indulge oneself at the expense of other needs.

Leisure creates wide gap of interests between ages, sexes (generation gap) since they have different interests.

Passive entertainment is so available that it kills creativity.

Those who lack what to do may turn to gossip, over sleeping, wandering, over attention to hair and nails etc.

Some leisure activities are destructive e.g. war films, kick boxing, wrestling and those on vandalism.

Some leisure activities are dangerous to health and can lead to death e.g. wrestling and boxing.

Some people make use of leisure activities to do evil e.g. fighting at dances.

Some people activities bring about unnecessary competitions leading to witchcraft e.g. some musicians try to eliminate those who are more successful.

Figure 16: Lucky Dube, a successful South African Reggae Musician was gunned down because of his good works.(RIP)

Some leisure activities lead to lack of self control especially if there is no guidance and counselling.

Pornography in films and literature destroys morals especially in red pepper, spice.

Wild dance in night discos involving zero distance, obsessions, Angenoir.

Westernisation of leisure rejecting tradition forms.

Wrecking of creation through accidents.

Permissiveness of society.

Principles of leisure

By use of examples, show how leisure can be transformed to serve mankind

It should be balanced between passive and active to avoid monotony and boredom.

There is need to balance the time between leisure and working hours.

Any leisure that leads to addiction should be avoided because our bodies are temples of God.

We should use leisure by worshiping God and love of our neighbours.

Before taking up anything (any leisure activity) one should find out the effects it may have on others; and if it for their good then one can go ahead to enjoy it e.g. games and sports are enjoyed by many, while alcohol and smoking by a few people.

Take up the role of teaching the young about God, involve them in Bible study/ story telling.

Take opportunity in spending leisure time with the family members; father, mother/ siblings to enrich relationships.

Leisure activities should be for building up morals and makes one more responsible.

Avoid wrong groupings that can lead to immoral, criminal and sexual promiscuity.

One can help in church activities like arranging flowers, joining the choir for spiritual development.

One can meaningfully use leisure by visiting the sick, elderly and helping the needy.

Leisure time can be used in helping others especially the disabled, poor, by meeting their basic needs.

Involve oneself in youth clubs, adult clubs like Mothers Union, young coup association, and singles fellowship.

Should concentrate on leisure activities that improve skills e.g. weaving, arts a crafts to earn a living.

Any type of leisure that makes one less human and that affects individuals or people's rights should be avoided.

A person can use leisure profitably by engaging in hobbies like writing poems, so to develop talents.

Any leisure leading one not to worship God is bad; we should use leisure by worshipping God and showing love to others (neighbours).

Attending Christian conferences, seminars, workshops which make one to be us to community.

Preaching and teaching the word of God.

Any leisure that brings regret to participants (both active and passive) is bad and should be avoided.

Any leisure that affects the individual is bad since man is created in the image of God and therefore good leisure should have good effect.

Examine the impact of leisure industry on the Ugandan society.

Leisure industry is any large scale business activity that specialises in entertaining people engaging them in producing gadgets and equipments which people use to enter themselves.

The impact on the society has both positive and negative effects as follows:-


It is a source of information especially the radio, TV programmes and newspaper enlighten people about world happenings (News).

The leisure industry provides entertainments, amusement through music, drama and dance.

It is a source of revenue to government though taxes paid.

Physical and mental fitness can be acquired e.g. in games, sport, gymnastics.

It is useful in building of relationships e.g. through games and sports people ai socialise people from different walks of life.

Outstanding sportsmen have gained fame nationally and internationally e.g. Ronaldino, Dorcus Inzikuru, Romalio and Kiprotich etc.

Participants in various games and sports have toured various places all over the world.

It has provided employment to citizens thereby raising their level income.

It has brought fame and popularity to leisure industrialist parks like Kabira Country Club, Resort Beach Munyonyo, Wonder's World and Kiwatule recreation centre etc.

Countries have become famous for winning world titles e.g. France in 1998- cup, 2002 Brazil and 2006 Italy.

Lotteries are played and at times free goods are given out to customers for production.

It has also contributed to building of God's kingdom through prayer, worship and fellowships in the various churches.

There is consumer satisfaction as the industries out prices due to competition.

Negative impacts:

Some people have become addicted to certain forms of leisure / entertainment e.g. drinking, gambling, watching soccer etc. unwanted pregnancies, rape and defilement are common among girls who are habitual disco goers and drunkards.

Many young boys and girls have dropped out of school because of too much love for leisure making themselves-as deejays and wrappers.

Young people have degenerated in morals because of what they read, watch or listen to.

There is a steady loss of culture since most of the entertainment are foreign oriented and this undermines our African culture.

There is a steady loss of religious values especially among the youth.

The leisure industry is money-oriented; the major aim is to make money and not providing entertainment which are morally and ethically oriented.

Due to being highly commercialised, it has led to redundancy and boredom to most people who cannot afford payments.

Sexual immorality is on the increase as an alternative leisure activity.

There is increased rate of theft so as to get money to enjoy leisure time.

The leisure industry has led to pornography promotion.

Children have been introduced to-sex while still young.

Violence is common especially among the youth because they are at times under influence of drugs or they want to practice what they watch in video halls.

A heavy burden has been put on parents in urban area, as they have to pay for their children to enjoy leisure.

There is rebellion of children against their parents as they do not want to be supervised.

There is the popularisation of disco dances and right clubs e.g. club silk, clubs obligate, Angenior which ruin morals of participants.

There is a new development of 'Ebimansulo' where people are entertained by nude dancers e.g. those of obsessions.

What values does Christian teaching uphold regarding the use of leisure?

Leisure time should be spent in building relationships e.g. Jesus as the standard of reference used leisure time to visit Martha and Mary.

Leisure time should give one an opportunity to develop talents.

It should be used to enrich our spiritual life e.g. through retreats, fasting, spiritual prayers etc.

Through reading scriptures and others Christian literature, we become more informed about God and what he expects of us.

Jesus himself participated in Israel social activities and functions e.g. he attended the wedding at Canna according to John Chapter 2.

Leisure time should be used to identify our failures and weaknesses in order to find way of improving on them.

It should be used for spiritual growth by reading scriptures and other Christian literature when we become more informed about God and what he expects of us.

Leisure should be used to develop fellowship with others Jesus always spared time to meet his disciples.

Leisure should be used for personal refreshment after fatigue accumulated by w

Leisure should be a time to reflect on our lives and see how best we can serve God.

Parents should always have time further families and interact with their children.

Annual festivals like Christmas Easter should be meaningfully celebrated.

"In African past, there was no specific time for leisure". Comment.

It is true that there were no special times for leisure.

In African traditional society leisure was important and taken up all regardless of status, or sex.

In African traditional society leisure was important and taken up all regardless of age or sex.

It was an indispensable element component of life observed by all people.

There were many forms of leisure enjoyed by members of society.

There was no separation of work and leisure.

People enjoyed leisure even as they worked i.e. work and leisure were interwoven e.g. while grinding corn, millet, harvesting people sang working songs and told stories.

Leisure was also taken hand in hand with education; in other words leisure educational elements.

Young people conversed around fire places for stories by elders.

Leisure had spiritual and religious dimensions and within it morals were taught.

On most occasions, the ancestors were called to witness the cultural functions, bless the people who performed best in various fields.

There were separate leisure activities for young men/ women in forms of songs dances.

They danced in great excitement and no need for a passive observer but all actively participated, leaders/ elders would teach the people history, proverbs, and stories about society and how one can be a responsible member.

Community leaders and elders discussed issues concerning their society and h improve on society while at beer parties.

Youth and children were forbidden from reaching certain extremes as elders did.

There were basic rules of importance in order to ensure prevalence of morality.

Through leisure activities people got food e.g. hunting, building and gathering of in the forests and swampy areas.

Leisure was both rejuvenating and productive oriented.

Leisure did not involve the use of money; therefore, all were welcome and participating meant anti social behaviour.

All people got involved physically to perform or enjoy leisure.

When there was drinking beer, all people had to drink, so was singing, dancing etc.

Leisure in a capitalistic society

A capitalist society is a society where the social system has factors of production is owned by a few individuals with the aim of maximising profits.

In capitalist countries there is much used of machines particularly in industry.

The amount of time spent by the average workers has been reduced hence more time for leisure.

Leisure in capitalistic society is spent in games and sports.

It is also spent in reading magazines, novels, news papers.

It is also spent in writing powerful books to launched by important people like the president (see photo below) , letters, pamphlets, novels, plays etc.

It is spent in discussing issues of importance with other people.

Worshipping and attending religious instruction, seminars, workshops and conferences.

Watching films, videos, TV, listening to radio programmes.

Passing time by sleeping or having a rest in bed.

Passing time by doing light work.

It is where there is free enterprises and improving on the means of production.

Socialising with friends in social gathering.

Celebrating occasions such as weddings birth days, memory services are organised.

Involvement in less manual work whose products can be sold to earn a living e.g. selling cakes, weaving etc.

Making, tours adventure or even aimless walk to ass time.

How has capitalism widened the gap between the rich and the poor?

It leads to profit maximisation by the rich at the expense of the poor.

Employers exploit the employees by making a lot of profits and also underpays after overworking there.

Accumulation of lots of wealth at the expense of the poor.

Higher prices of the manufactured goods affects the poor (set by capitalists). Taxation benefits the rich e.g. VAT, GT.

Farmers are exploited by business men / capitalists who buy cheaply and sell goods at a higher price.

The spirit of sharing dies out and the under privileged are left out.

It increases cost of living causing the poor to sell out their resources e.g. land so as t survive.

Cheap importation of raw materials and exportation of expensive manufactured goods. Foreign aid is given with high interest rates to poor countries.

Government policies favour the rich than the poor e.g. privatisation, liberalisation.

It encourages corruption which depletes (affects) poor (greed, fraud, treachery). Political power is dominated by capitalists making it difficult for the poor to penetrate; who enrich themselves and the poor continue to be at lower levels.

It breeds vicious circle of poverty since those who want to rise up as they try to amidst their fellow poor end up in poverty.

It provides quality education for the rich leading to better employment while the go for UPE, USE, UPOLET with less hope for better education.

Leisure in a socialist society

A socialist society is a society where the means of production is communal and the resources are for the whole society and not an individual.

In socialist countries machines are used but not as much as in capitalist countries leaving most of the work to be done by people.

There is limited discussion of important issues with other people for fear of antagonising the government.

Watching films, videos, TV programmes are controlled since they are censored. In socialist society leisure is spent in games and sports but at times state a monitor individual participation.

Reading novels, magazines can be done but are often censored. Freedom of worship is limited and at time done on risk.

Socialising with people is limited because one cannot be free to talk for fear of or government agents.

There is celebrating of occasions

Ideas can be discussed at depth only if they are in support of the socialist government.

Leisure activities are cheaper and free but on a narrow range i.e. not many activities except those allowed and organised by the state.

There is control of economy and all aspects of life.

Some do light work to pass time.

Leisure can be spent by touring, visiting

Sports and games as leisure activities

Sports can be a form of running/ racing while games can be activities of competition b of feet or hands end football, hand ball.


They encourage teamwork and cooperation.

They help participates to learn self control because of the rules involved and mod behaviour.

The success of participants ends up into a national pride e.g. when Inzikuru got medal Uganda became famous in that field of event e.g. Akiibua, Maradona. It is a form of entertainment and many pay to get chance to see /watch.

It is one of the ways of doing away with boredom.

It may be a source of income to participants and can be one's life long career international/national footballers / sportsmen or women earn a lot of money.

It promotes international cooperation as it overcomes political, social and cultural differences e.g. even when Uganda had invaded DRC and relations were not footballers from DRC came to participate.

It gives mental refreshment e.g. a student who has been reading for long can play some games and will be refreshed.

It provides outlet for human emotions such as laughing, shouting, cheering, morale boosting and this makes one forget ones frustrations / problems in life for that time or helps to reduce tensions.

It trains sharing, fair play and friendship; so there will be more socialisation.

It makes one physically and mentally fit and in most cases simple sicknesses are waived off.

It can be a means of revenue collection by the organisers. It is one way one can discover ones talents.

They help or act as avenue of learning more about other countries and cultures beyond one's boundaries.

Some people can use games and sport for admission to institutions of learning i.e. in university there are points for sports/ games participants.

They reactivate the body in which unwanted products are released which keeps a person in a better healthy state.

Sports and games may lead to material rewards e.g. government can decide to construct good houses for all players/ sportsman.

They create fair competition among participants.

Their names can be given to places, roads, institutions e.g. Akii Bua stadium. They can be a basis of development of interpersonal relationship.


Most games and sports have been commercialised and so very few people can afford to participate and the poor are marginalized.

Sports and games provide an atmosphere where people fight, use vulgar language and even lead immoral acts.

Some popular games like soccer are used for cheating the public. The entrance fee is usually too high and thus some officials who man the stadium enrich themselves at the expense of the public.

Some professionals end up being arrogant and proud because they are good players.

They aim at glorifying themselves and they become small gods of their own.

Some sports are too cruel. They may scare or cause terrible influences on the youth who may end up behaving very badly e.g. watching boxing and wrestling.

Some players end up sustaining physical damages forever. Ones' leg or arm may end up being injured through foul play.

Some participants have ended up using violence, applying drugs to get extra strength resorting to witch craft and sorcery and sometimes bribing referees.

Games and sport make people irresponsible where some heads of families use most of their time and resources on watching them.

Some games/ sports arouse negative emotions from both spectators and participants e.g. a back score in football may contribute to self score and this can be interpreted as treachery causing fights and can even be killed for this.

Some can cause a great disaster e.g. a whole Zambian team had a plane crush which was a national disaster.

Hooliganism, blackmailing can be exhibited.

Some sports like cross crematory, motor ridding are dangerous and can cause accidents.

Some of these make viewing difficult i.e. for motor rallying and crop country one the beginning and if possible the end but not the whole activity.

Government may use a lot of resources to sponsor and yet they do not succeed winning or bringing any success.

Some may abandon studies for sports or games and yet they could have a career e.g. becoming doctors etc.

Explain the meaning and dangers of passive leisure

Passive leisure is an inactive way of passing time or spending leisure when one is active work.

This includes reading novels, watching TV, Videos, cinema or listening to radio program of basic.

Figure 17 BBC Focus on Africa: One of the best informative programmes which the youth should not miss.

This can be dangerous because one can be addicted to it to the exclusion of useful w It may lead to laziness.

Films that depict war, violence, thugery and sexual immorality can inhabit p moral growth for it leads to criminality and irresponsibility.

Some of them involve money and can easily lead to theft, frustrations and prostitution.

Lack of creativity, physical development, and social development.

An idle mind is the devil's workshop so one becomes prone to crime.

How a Christian can avoid these dangers.

A Christian should get involved in more active leisure e.g. games, sports, d bible study etc.

Attend Christian conferences, clubs, crusades, choir, and youth groups. Make useful visits e.g. pastoral.

Christian leaders should be exemplary.

Entertainment should be broadened to include descent literature.

Use Christian standards to evaluate the moral implications/ values depicted films, novels, music we see, read / hear.

Avoid attending leisure activities that have bad influences. Pray to God for guidance and protection.

Christian leaders should always discuss the problems with the youth and give advice.

Of what importance is Sunday/Sabbath leisure activity to participants?

Sabbath is the Jewish day of rest which God set after creation of the world. Sunday other hand is the day of the Lord when Jesus resurrected.

The two are used alternatively, depending on believers, as a day of rest, worship by Christians.

Sunday is taken as the day Jesus resurrected and the day that brought hope for Christians to expect new life and salvation for mankind.

These days are used for praise and worship of God as the soul creator and sustainers of life.

The seventh day Adventists (SDA) still maintains the Jewish Sabbath that was given from creation and feel there has been no authority given by God for the change. Nevertheless though Sunday or Sabbath, each of these days, is devoted to worship God by church members.

Each of these days offers a social activity as members participate in fellowship of love.

In some churches Sunday is a must and in their institutions there is compulsory prayer. The Roman Catholic believers are expected to come for mass every Sunday.

Many church meetings are organised on these days for development of the church. Though tasks like cooking, washing cannot wholly be avoided no other work like digging is allowed.

Some however, use these days for visitations or make themselves enjoy the company of the family and exchange views on this day.

Christens also differ in their attitudes towards buying and selling on Sunday / Sabbath or even playing games or sitting for examinations.

But many accept recreational games but not programmed games played for money. Those who feel the games provide excitement, enjoyment especially in towns.

They refresh minds in preparation for the next days work.

Many people also have Sunday to enjoy personal interests such as music, reading stories and participating in hobbies.

The teaching of Jesus on how to use the Sabbath is that our conscience should guide us in making Sunday / Sabbath a day of rest, worship, joy and refreshment

Mass media as a leisure activity

Mass media is any form of communication such as the press, television, radio, views papers and magazines.

Usefulness/advantages Mass media are vital instruments for informing the public, most used by government about developments and any important information for knowledge.

The public can also express ideas, give proposals, opinions on various issues of concern.

It has educative programmes, values for different age groups, sexes e.g. health etc.

It is useful in advertising goods and services directing people to places where such commodities can be found.

It informs general masses through using quick means possible.

It has entertainment corners; both active and passive e.g. puzzles, Jokes, gossips, cartoons.

Mass media can be used to spread the gospel through church services, music, se delivery, daily prayers etc.

For personal announcements; informing about death, lost property, stolen g meetings and programmes.

It can be used for sexual education to the youth and the old e.g senga, man and woman in the newspapers.

It refreshes the mind.

It can be used for spiritual development through reading scriptures, watching religious programmes on television.

Provides employment opportunities e.g. journalists, radio presenters etc. It is used for development of skills / talents.

It promotes international relations. Some people can earn rewards end gifts from mass media.

Helps to shape people's characters. Disadvantages/misuse

Although mass media is useful as stated above it has been misused making it useful as illustrated below:-

Some programmes are morally destructive instead of being educative e.g. blue m portray false love, unrealistic sex, advertise and encourage immorality or wrong use of leisure e.g. smoking, drinking, violence, fighting, robbing etc.

It sometimes gives false information to some issues e.g. advertisements on al drinks and cigarettes e.g. Rex as a taste for success.

Influence anti- social behaviours e.g. indecent dressing.

If not controlled it leads to time wastage particularly among the youth.

It can be used to destroy international relationship especially where simple conflicts are magnified e.g. between Uganda and Rwanda.

The youth acquire bad mass media culture not fitting in society e.g. use word 'fuck you.'

Government officials sometimes use it to brain wash and in doctrines the masses.

It discourages some people from attending to their spiritual obligations.

It is highly commercialized and therefore requires money.

Mass media operators are usually bribed to black mail others to win favour over/social opponents.

It does not hide secret information like internet / fax.

It encourages spread of diseases e.g. people at on time feared to open letter for fear of anthrax.

It causes accidents e.g. when driving and listening to radio, watching video and answering calls on mobile phones.

It encourages laziness/ passiveness to some people who cannot work.

They use vulgar language which is shameful to elders.

It can be misused by the state to indoctrinate and brain wash people.

It brings out contradicting information e.g. when DP brought out the Kayiira death report by Interpol police, government brought in a different version so people are confused on which of the two is correct.

Mass media also has the following weaknesses: -

It does not provide immediate feedback from receiver to transmitter; this delay is not desirable by many people.

The receiver has no choice of selection of programmes; they are all selected and organized by departments concerned depending on what to inform the public; which may be biased or protective.

Where there is no national language / official language it is difficult to communicate to all.

Not all people are exposed to mass media especially the rural poor. It is generally expensive to those who can not afford.

Mass media like radio / TV uses electricity or batteries yet in rural areas some cannot afford. This is worsened by load shading.

Some programmes are put at wrong time e.g. when people have gone to work, or late at night.

Mass media has fixed times and one cannot rewind programmes once one has missed that is all.

It does not take care of age groups; issues for elders are exposed to children.

"Rex is a test of success" and "ESB is the beer you cannot afford to miss" assess the impact of such advertisements. Advertisements are some of the ways in which mass media works and it is making the public aware of the sale / presence of a commodity and therefore driving the need for it.


It is used to promote the sales of products mentioned by drawing attention of the public.

Advertisements are the major sources of income to radio, TV stations and news papers and those who take the advertisements pay a lot of money e.g. for news papers it is allotted in full page, half page, quarter etc with its rates.

It (advertisements) enhances social interactions where friendship can be achieved especially when consumers meet at social points.

It offers employment to the promoters.

It increases consumption of the commodity as people try to prove on what is advertised.

It is also a means of increasing on revenue collections for the departments and increases on the tax base to government.

It provides avenues for leisure (relaxation).

Consumers are attracted and directed where goods can be found.

It helps those who have been searching for a particular product in vain to discover where one can get it.


Advertisements arouse unnecessary desire to consume products even if one was not prepared for it.

Leads to addiction due to constant advertisement.

Individuals become a nuisance and social misfits since advertisements can lead to crimes.

Individuals can become a parasite on others demanding assistance to get desired commodity.

Can lead to many immoral acts like rape, child abuse etc.

Can lead to imprisonment.

Some advertisements can lead to strikes in institutions.

It can lead to death e.g. as they advertise on any kind of drink; drug people take in excessive quantity and end up dying.

Leads to irresponsibility on job.

Damages the brain or poor health and one is vulnerable to diseases especially use of drugs for smoking e.g. bhang.

It can lead to poverty.

It can lead to spiritual degeneration.

Leads to neglect of family responsibility or break up of families.

Christian stand on the above advertisement

It is wrong to advertise the use of alcoholic drinks and cigarettes for smoking.

This is because the Christian's body is the temple of the Holy Spirit hence should not be dirtied by alcohol or smoking (1 Cor 6: 19, 3: 16). Isaiah 28:7-9 warns people against drunkardness.

Alcohol disgraces people e.g. Noah's sons saw their fathers nakedness. (Gen 9:21-22).

Alcohol influences people to do immoral acts e.g. in Gen 19:34 -36 Lot had sex with his daughters and they became pregnant.

Wine makes one not to think properly/ clearly (Hos 4: 11).

Heavy drinkers are condemned by Isaiah (28:7-8).

Paul speaks against drunkardness (Eph 5: 18, Rom 13: 13), (1 Cor 5: 11, 6:10) .

Beer is a mocker (prov 20: 1).

Beer is a source of poverty (prov 22: 17, Tim 3:8).

Alcohol destroys a person's wisdom (prov. 20:1).

Amos condemned drinking e.g. women of Bashan (Amos 5: 11).

All Christians condemn excessive drinking or any form of intoxication as these lead to several social evils and sin (Mt 24:29).

Both alcohol and smoking can ruin one's health and hasten his death.

However, Jesus turned water into wine (jn 2: 1-11). Wine is called the gift of God (Df 7: 13). Paul advised Timothy to drink a little wine for the good of his health (1 Tim 5:23)

At the last supper Jesus used wine as a symbol of his blood which is shed for many (matt 9:14).

Jesus normally drank wine (Matt 11: 19).

Wine is necessary for celebrations and special functions in the community.

Misuse and Abuse of leisure Leisure can be misused if taken in excessive quantity and abused if not taken rightly and this could bring dangers not only to ones self but to society as a whole.

Drunkardness or alcoholism. This arises from over drinking alcoholic liquor.

Why Drink

Young people think that it makes them feel grown ups as a demonstration.

Peer group pressure so some want to be sociable and to be left behind (to fit in ground). Some drink to avoid shyness and being to argue tied because it loosens the tongue and makes one fell relaxed and jolly.

Some drink to avoid troubles, frustrations or cope up with sorrow or disappointments.

Alcohol makes one feel brave and courageous.

Some drink as away of passing time; feeling of pleasure and relaxed. For celebrations e.g. parties.

Some do so for curiosity.

Some drink for medical purposes since it makes digestion easy after meals, in Africa tradition some diseases can be treated by mixing medicines in alcohol.

Environment can lead one to be alcoholic e.g. children born and reared in drinking places! homes will eventually become so.

Some drink as a religious ceremony e.g. Holy Communion! at shrines.

Some have a lot of money and have less responsibility.

Unfortunately Alcohol Is Also Addictive i.e. the more one takes the more feeling for more.

Types of drinkers There area basically three types:-

Sociable drinkers who drink in order to be sociable or fit in a group.

Solitary drinkers, who drink out of frustration, avoid problems, boredom and such can become unsociable and dangerous because they transfer their frustrations to others.

Compulsive drinkers; those who are addicted and become physical and psychological necessity. Such go beyond control and become alcoholics and are regarded through an organization like alcoholic anonymous.

Dangers of drunkardness

Excessive drinking lowers man's power of self control where one ends up doing what he could not do if sober e.g. sex abuse, murder etc.

It increases sex urge but decreases sense of judgment e.g. one can not negotiate for the condom or say no.

It destroys relationships / friendship.

Alcohol reduces one capacity to think clearly and make judgements.

Can lead to poor performance in class.

Cuts away one's relationship with God.

As one drinks to avoid avoiding some problems he becomes irresponsible and cannot face problems to get solutions.

It can lead to underdevelopment or poverty since one uses all resources for d Alcohol impairs ones health and body and can lead to permanent illness e.g. lung damage; damage to the liver and therefore early death.

Some drunkards become aggressive and violent who unnecessary fight over issues and causes unhappiness in the family.

A drunken driver can cause accidents and loss of people's lives and property because he develops over confidence and over speeds.

Can lead to loss of respect.

Drunkards face the problem of double vision forcing them to stagger, loose s balance, and unnecessarily falls and on roads they are often knocked by tetchiest cyclists to death.

A pregnant mother who over drinks affects the growing fetus in the womb.

Alcohol affects the brains with defects in action or speech i.e. the hands shake.

Alcohol makes one develop speech defects and is unable to communicate well.

Large quantities of alcohol cause vomiting, affects skin and one feels hot and when actually one is loosing heat.

Drunkards easily loose over his body system, urinating and defecating in clothes messing up the dressing.

The heart is affected; it increases blood pressure, heart beat, nervous system affects the liver because it passes it in large quantities.

It disrupts families and some even forget paying fees.

Biblical teaching

Wine is a mocker, strong drink a brawler and whoever is led by it is unwise (Prov 20:1)

  • It leads to poverty (Prov 21: 17)
  • A drunkard and a glutton will never be rich (Prov 23:29).
  • Gen 9:21-24 the shame of Noah is shown.
  • In (Gen 19:20-38) it leads to incest (Lot and his daughters).
  • In 2 Sam 11: 13, 13:23-29 are stories that alcohol can lead to murder (Uriah, Amnon)
  • In (1sam 28: 1,22: 13) drunkardness is rebuked.
  • In the NT, Matthew 24:49 the bad servant went into drinking and dancing.
  • The church worker should avoid excessive drinking (1 Tim 3, 1 Cor 5: 11 (Bishops and deacons).
  • Drink defiles the body which is the temple of God (1 Cor 3: 16). In Rom 13: 13 alcohol should be avoided.
  • All churches condemn excessive drinking; though they (some) allow mild, others abstinence.

  • Wine corrupts Israel (Isa 28: 1) and makes a person unable to think clearly (Hos 4: 11).
  • On the other hand, wine is called a gift of God (Dt 7:13) and will be one of the good things of the coming establishment of the reign of God (Amos 9:14). At Cana, Jesus turned water into wine(Jn 2: 1 - 11).
  • Mt 11: 19 Jesus normally drunk wine, at the Lord's Super he called wine his blood which should be drunk till he comes or in memory of his death.
  • Paul advises Timothy to take / drink a little wine for the good of his health (1 Tim 5:23).

Christian attitude

  • Excessive drinking is condemned; some allow little while others refuse completely.
  • In Biblical times some refrained for religious purposes e.g. Nazirites and Rechabites in Old Testament e.g. John the Baptists.
  • Today many born again Christians look at drinking as evil.
  • There is need look at the background of alcoholic because some re just trapped in viscous cycle and unable to save themselves.
  • One should avoid being an alcoholic by being preoccupied with drink and beginning to loose interest in other things and so such need help.

How to avoid

  • Know the effects Accept that alcohol has dangers
  • Have positive attitude that you can stop Have willed to guilt.
  • Identify one who can help to encourage you out of it.

African attitude

  • Beer was made and drunk communally. Was free and no need to buy as today.
  • Beer parties helped to build relationships, at times groups contributed to the beer by collecting banana beer, calabashes, pots, stones, stools to sit on.
  • Labour was not paid for but beer was given as a reward.
  • Excessive drinking which led to unacceptable behaviour was discouraged.
  • It was important for any joyful accession; initiation, naming, wedding.
  • It was also used during unhappy times like funerals.
  • It was used while educating and training young ones e.g. wrestling and display of other talents like shooting targets, dancing and singing.
  • Used in building community and not destroying.
  • A sip was poured down to make the living dead have a share and celebrate feasts, victory over enemies and goods harvests.
  • At beer parties there was no discrimination; people enjoyed freely and no inferiority except in Bugisu if one was not circumscribed he was a boy who was not allowed to share with men.
  • During drinking people discussed important issues and also used as entertainment of friends and relatives.

To what extent did beer parties/drinking as a leisure activity contribute to the development of African traditional societies?

(see African attitude above for possible answers)

However, sometimes beer drinking was not developmental:-

Sometimes some beer drinking groups were segregative on age, common interests.

At some beer parties some people could be bewitched and this leading to death.

Some people had uncontrolled drinking pattern i.e. over drunk, became aggressive.

It also led to irresponsibility; so some drunk to avoid some problems.

Some lost body systems by defecating in clothes, undressing in public.

Drug abuse

A drug is a substance that stimulates nerve systems and which can lead to addiction. It is also a substance that is issued as medicine or in medicine to heal or lessen the effects of an infection.

Drug abuse means misuse of drugs i.e. using drugs not in the prescribed ways or using drugs to change the systems and functions which later lead to bad results of effects.

Drugs are useful in altering the body chemistry particularly in treating and cure of illness as prescribed by medical personnel to with physical and mental health. But if are incorrectly used in order to escape from solving /facing problems it can be dangerous. Alcohol is an example of such drugs.

Types: There are many different types but the following are common:-

Tranquillizers: These are taken to lessen anxiety; they pacify the user and soothing effect. At times such drugs are used on medical advice to alleviate or problem (health) with precise prescriptions so using them wrongly is dangerous. People who are hypochondriac, who believe in themselves to be ill and in need of drugs all the time, face the problem of addiction, deterioration to make judgements and psychological disorder.

Stimulants: These stimulate the brain and central nervous system and cause a feeling of extra energy and alertness. Usually they have temporary effect and can have opposite feeling or side effects and can also make one ineffective in performance e.g. Viagra.

Sedatives: These are used to calm down a person in activity; usually make one they depress the nervous system to loosen his anxiety e.g. portion.

Some people use drugs to escape from responsibility e.g. some drink to free themselves from worry of issues at hand.

Some use drugs to gain courage especially those who are shy or cowards e.g. some boys who fear to approach girls or soldiers who fear to go to war.

Drugs can be used to release tension/release of emotional stress.

Permissiveness of society where no body cares what the other does.

Peer group influence in order to fit in a group.

Some youth take drugs to feel grown ups e.g. as they smoke or drink they feel they are important.

General lack of make a name e.g. the youth even old men use stimulants e.g. Viagra to show girls/women how they are sexually strong.

Mass media, via advertisement induces people to try to prove on the goodness of what is advertised e.g. Nile special make one special.

Loss of hope of life anymore to quicken their death or use it in order to spread to others.

Lack of responsibility; one sees that it is one of the ways to use ones income.

Decline of religious conviction where one is not bothered about its effect or being responsible to God.

It is used to nurse one's frustrations e.g. the Banyankole say "Kwosho berawa aresa" (if you are at a fix the option is to smoke).

Influence of western culture with is aspects of freedom.

Influence of environment where are lives e.g. if one lives a drinking place or in a home where people smoke takes it up.

Nature of employment e.g. people who work in toilets, keep the mortuary or security personnel who keep watch at night usually smoke or drink to cope up with the situation.

Poor legal systems which does not punish drug abusers or failure to set limits on drinking hours. Unlike countries like Singapore which executes drug traffickers (on 26/1/2007 a 19 years Nigerian youth was executed by hanging).

High level of unemployment.

Uncontrolled increase of sell of drugs and poor prescriptions of drugs.

The need for perfection in sport and games e.g. Katerega was a nice foot baler due to drugs so was Maradona.

Hypondriac state where one believes that one cannot do without drugs.

  • Cultural influence e.g. installing heir, in Teso alcohol (ajoono) is used for naming that is why most Itesot take ajoono.
  • The increasing rate of importance among men.
  • The need to keep awake e.g. by students, drivers.
  • People take drugs to imitate. The models and idols e.g. Brenda Fasy of South Africa was a good singer but used to take drugs; so those who want to imitate her singing take drugs.
  • Poverty
  • Idleness
  • Failure to arrest known drug dealers e.g. in Kisenyi.
  • Development of sales of mairungi, bhangi on streets and the government is silent.
  • Government failure to stop brewing of local gin e.g. enguli with impurities and yet the security agents are good customers so they can not arrest or prosecute them.
  • Even if some are arrested due to corruption of the police they are released.

Disadvantages of drugs

  • Drugs are dangerous and can cause addiction; which a feeling that makes one unable to give up the habit.
  • Drugs cause the central nervous to be damaged in that it can cause drowsiness and command can later lead to death.
  • Drug abuse has been connected with the spread of AIDS since users have/ use same injection needles.
  • Dangerous drugs lead to psychological problems such as not working effectively or refuse to work at all without any sound reason.
  • It leads to increased rate of crimes e.g. rape and defilement, murders etc.
  • Drugs reduce ones capacity to think well.
  • Most drug addicts are social deviants; they are aggressive and can do anything dangerous.
  • It can cause unhappiness in families e.g. when one mistreats family members.
  • Most accidents are caused by people who are under the control of drugs.
  • Society is robed of people's brains since some people become literally mad and irresponsible.
  • Family planning pills increase on sexual immorality.
  • Poverty is common among addicts and no development in their families.
  • Sometimes they fail to breath (breath complications) which later leads to death.
  • They are victims of fits and convulsions.
  • There is deterioration in decision making to make moral judgment due to altered physical ability.
  • Drugs commonly used are bangi, miraa, caunabis sativa and hallucinogen; some of which cause slow suicide i.e. one uses/ takes tranquillizers to sooth him leading to depression.
  • Drug abuse cause unbalanced emotions or more serious mental disorders.
  • Drug addicts experience confusion.
  • Hero in users are sometimes violent especially first time user while regular users experience constipation and girls can miss their periods and later serious physical and mental defects arise.
  • Relationships may be strained especially with family members and former friends.
  • Taking heavy drugs, a person risks heavy fines and even imprisonment.
  • Drugs are expensive, so heavy users may end up spending all their money on "feeding the habit."
  • Drugs also make people go into drinking and smoking heavily.
  • Adolescence can be particularly difficult period and can end up conflicting with parents, school, friends etc.
  • Some drugs can lead to miscarriage or birth of deformed children.
  • Drugs damage health of the victims and make him susceptible to other illness.
  • The smell of drugs themselves draws people away from the addict.
  • It lead to environmental degradation e.g. smoking pollutes the environment and some people's health can be affected.
  • Sometimes addicts commit suicide.
  • Users are always social misfits.
  • Can lead to poor upbringing of children.
  • The user of drugs is dangerous to society; they usually face imaginary persecutions and fear so can do terrible things under the influence of drugs.


  • It is one of the common practices today.
  • For the youth it makes them feel grown ups or important, social and due to peer pressure or even due to curiosity.
  • Yet to adults they take smoking to reduce tension and to experience a pleasant feeling.


Smoking is associated with lung cancer, since in tobacco the nicotine is a drug which has side effects leading to death.

  • It affects the growing unborn baby of an expectant mother.
  • It leads to addiction as it appears to produce a soothing effect and reduces tension; it becomes difficult to give it up.
  • It is expensive e.g. if one smokes a packet of 20 cigarettes per day x week x month and by the end of the year one would have spent a lot of money.
  • Usually effects are slow but as they mature they lead to death.
  • Research shows that more than 50,000 premature deaths every year are due to complications from smoking.
  • In third world countries land is given up for production of tobacco for export while locals go hungry.
  • Research also shows that non smoking wives have 50% risk of lung cancer.
  • Air pollution; some smokers are affected by the smoke through the smell received and even those who do not smoke are affected as secondary smokers.
  • It leads to deforestation, since a lot of wood fuel is used to dry and cure the tobacco and this also causes soil erosion.
  • It also causes bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchial), smoking causes 70% death from bronchitis and kills more than 30,000 people per year.
  • Emphysema; which causes defective breathing, is another disease caused by smoking.
  • Nicotine increases the rate of heart beat and so wears down the heart and 25% of death of heart disease is due to smoking.
  • Smokers are less fit and more likely to get colds, flue and other infections.
  • It can cause blood clots and stomach ulcers in chain smokers.
  • Christian attitude on smoking

    Man is made in the image of God who is governed by the Holy Spirit and therefore should avoid such dangers (Gen 1:27).

    In 1 Cor 3: 16 the Christians' body is the temple of God (Holy spirit) so should treat the body with excessive respect, efficient instrument for the service of God, give it sufficient care, rest, nourishment, disciplined and strong for work.

    Smokers should love neighbours by not affecting others with their smoke.

    Life is a gift from God. So it should be valued and preserved by avoiding risks of life.

    Since smoking aids to sickness and death therefore doing so one denies oneself the goodness of created existence.

    Smokers need to be guided and counselled.

    The church condemns the habit of smoking.

    How to stop smoking

    Pray to God to overcome the habit.

    Regard smoking as a sin like any other habits (bad).

    To overcome the habit strictness should be taken.

    Abide by the rules like not smoking in a vehicle, resist peer pressure.

    Avoid carrying cigarettes in the pocket.

    Compare and contrast the African attitude to beer drinking to that of biblical teaching.

    In both, excessive drinking was condemned for it leads to unacceptable behaviour and in the bible bishops / priests and deacons are discouraged from excessive drinking (1 Tim 3).

    In both beer was made and drink communally, it was free and not bought as today.

    In both alcohol was used at parties e.g. the wedding at Cana and at African festivals for it build relationships and at times groups contributed to beer collection (of with the way the Lord's Supper was being misused).

    Alcohol was used for any joyful occasion such as initiation, naming, wedding in African tradition just as unhappy times.

    It was one of the fruits of harvests to be enjoyed e.g. Noah planted a vine yard after the flood and enjoyed wine as a fruit.

    In both, there was no discrimination; people enjoyed drinking freely and no inferiority was exposed. In the same way Paul condemns those who ate end drunk in an unworthy manner based on class destination.

    In both alcohols was taken after a meal (both African and Jewish culture). On the other hand, the Africans went ahead to pour down a sip to make the living dead have a share which is not biblical.

    Africans used alcohol for entertaining visitors which is not shown in the bible.

    It was also used to educate the young ones or when displaying talents.

    Labour was not paid for but beer was used as a reward which is not shown in the bible.

    As for the bible wine is called a gift from God (Dt 7: 13), in the Lord's supper it is the blood of Jesus and should be taken till his coming in memory of his death and Paul advises Timothy to take a little for his health (1 Tim 5:23).

    On the contrary, wine is a mocker, strong drink a brawler and whoever is led by it is unwise (Prov 20: 1) leads to poverty (Prov 21 : 17) and in the New Testament to church workers should avoid excessive drinking.

    All in all, both do not condemn drinking but the extent and evil outcomes should be realized or taken into consideration.