What is justice?

Defining justice takes into consideration the following:

Treating people fairly and having things run in an orderly way in the society

Doing what is right, fair and well deserved to one's self and others

Taking into consideration the interests of everyone in deciding what to do or in running the affairs of the community

Acting in accordance to the requirements of the laws in a given society

Treating others fairly and giving what is owed to them

In all, justice means having the quality of being fair or treating a person, an institution or the society humanly.

In the understanding and administration of justice, the issues of laws and human rights are very important and must be observed if justice is to be achieved.

Types of justice

Distributive / Economic Justice

This refers to giving to all members of the society a fair share of the benefits and resources available so that human needs are met.

Procedural Justice

This refers to fairness in deciding what is to be' done or distributed among members of the society. It can also mean making and implementing decisions according to fair processes that ensure fair treatment of each individual.

Restorative/Collective Justice

This refers to fairness in putting situations right or back to normal. It is concerned with healing the victim's injuries, restoring the offenders to law abiding lives and re pairing the harm done to inter personal relationships and community.

Retributive Justice

This refers to seeking revenge so that one can fill the satisfaction of seeing another suffer in the same way he or she could have suffered. In other wards it means treating a person the same way he or she treats others.

Legal Justice.  

This is concerned with the observation of the rules and regulations governing a society. It puts into consideration the laws of the society and how they are followed.

Commutative Justice

This involves fairness in following an agreement made between two individuals between an individual and a group or between two groups.

Moral Justice

This is fairness to one's own life, particularly his or her behavior in the society. It is concerned with dos and don'ts of society.

Social Justice

This refers to fairness that applies to the structures, systems and the laws of the society so that people's rights are observed.

 Justice in the present situation

The need for justice in the modern world cannot be over emphasized. Looking at different societies, there are sets of rules and regulations that are followed in an attempt to promote good relationship among the people.

Effort by Uganda government in promoting justice today

1.   The Ugandan government is giving full support to women liberation struggle such that they may realize their full rights. This comes from the fact that women had for a long time been considered inferior to men.

2.   The Ugandan government has put in place children's statute. There are laws to ensure that children are protected from ill treatment.

3.   The government has put in place a human rights commission. This commission protects against and investigates human rights abuses.

4.   The government has promoted a relatively independent court of law. The decisions taken by the courts of law are respected as much possible without interference.

5.   The government has put in place anti-corruption bodies such as Inspector General of Government (lGG), Auditor General and Public Accounts Committee (PAC). These bodies are there to ensure that public facilities are not mishandled.

6.   The government has promoted a free mass media. This has made it possible for people to get access to information both internal and international.

7.   The parliament of Uganda is also relatively free from interference by other branches of government. This has enabled people to express their views through their representatives on important issues concerning themselves.

8.   The government is equipping security organs like the police, army and the prison. This is helping in ensuring peace and harmony among people.

9.   The government has also promoted constitutional governance of the country. The 1995 constitution stands as the supreme law of Uganda upon which decisions are made. This is protecting people from unlawful harassment.

10. The Ugandan government recognizes the institution of the traditional leaders like kings and chiefs. This is helping in preserving the cultural heritage of some societies like Buganda, Bunyoro and Busoga.

11. The government is promoting decentralization of power in its administration. Power has been transferred from the central government to the local units. This has promoted easy access to the services of the leaders at the different levels of administration.

12. The government has also gone ahead to protect the consumers from being exposed to low quality, dangerous goods and over charging. This has been made possible through the foundation of Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS).

13. The Uganda government has put in place and equipped institutions to support people with disabilities like the deaf and the lame. For example, the Uganda National Institute for Special Needs Education (U.N.I.S.E).

14. Amnesty is being given to former rebels like the returnees of Lord Resistance Army, a rebel group under the leadership of Joseph Kony that was based in northern Uganda. This has encouraged reconciliation in the country. Even the war atrocities are being reduced thus promoting relative peace.   

15. The government has been at the forefront sensitizing the public about their rights. This is to ensure that people are not ignorant of the laws protecting them from mistreatment.

16. The Uganda government has liberalized its economy. Some resources are now in the hands of private individuals. This has encouraged equal sharing of wealth.

17. The government has promoted free education especially under Universal Primary and Secondary Education. Even in higher institutions owned by government, certain percentage of students is sponsored. This has enabled people of different backgrounds to have equal access to education.

Obstacles in promoting justice

1.   The commercialization of justice has made it difficult for people to be treated fairly. The poor people who cannot afford to pay the required cash may be victimized innocently.

2.   There is too much ignorance among the people. Some people commit crimes without knowingly and others deliberately do it. This hinders the effective ways of promoting the desired justice.

3.   There is also poor investigation by the officers concerned. This leaves out a lot of cases of injustices unsettled thus making the victims to continue with their suffering.

4.   Political instability hinders the work of the officers in charge of promoting justice. The officers may decline carrying out their duties because of fear of losing their lives. This exposes people to a lot of injustices.

5.   The high level of poverty among people makes it difficult for justice to be promoted. Some people commit crimes continuously because of the poor standard of living. This may explain why there is an increasing rate of corruption and robbery.

6.   Weaknesses within the state laws make it difficult for justice to be executed. On a number of occasions, criminals have been set free. This gives them the chance to exploit such weaknesses and commit more crimes. Other people may also be influenced to do the same.

7.   The existing level of permissiveness has created more room for people to commit more crimes. People exploit this freedom to do whatever they want without considering the bad effects on others.

8.   The free mass media has instead produced materials that affect people's morality negatively. For example, the watching of war films is responsible for violence and hooliganism among the youth. This is because they tend to copy whatever they watch. This makes it difficult for justice to be maintained.

9.   Political interference hinders the promotion of justice. This is true in cases where the government has too much influence over the judiciary. In such cases, the executive branch of government may not respect the decisions taken in the courts of law. This exposes the common man to a lot of injustices.   

10. The high level of corruption and bribery may also block any method employed in maintaining justice. Public facilities are being used to satisfy the selfish aims of a few individuals. Criminals may also be shielded and acquitted on the claim that their files have “disappeared” or “misplaced”.

11. Cultural rigidities are also problems in the maintenance of justice. Much as some of the traditional customs do subject people to injustices, the law cannot over rule them. This means that people would continue being exposed to such injustices because of following their cultures. A case in point is the genital female mutilation among the Sebei people.

12. There is also lack of proper co-ordination and co-operation among the people. This makes it difficult for the administrators of justice to carry out their duties of not only arresting but also punishing the offenders.

13. Emphasis on legal procedures such as demanding for eyewitnesses may also hinder the maintenance of justice. This may explain the cause of the delay in judging cases, which instead subjects people to more injustices.


As already noted injustice brings a break down in relationship among people. Today there are so many cases where people are failing to relate to one another including the following.

1.   There is oppression and exploitation of workers by the different employers. This is being done in many ways including little payment over working and late or no payment-at all among others.     

2.   Women are also being suppressed in the male dominated society. There is a tendency to look at women as inferior. Because of this attitude some are abused sexually in different ways like rape, defilement, and polygamous marriages among others.

3.   Child abuse is another form of injustice common today. Some children are the victims or strenuous, work, rejection by their parents, and corporal punishment among others. All these affect the children negatively.

4.   Justice today has been commercialized. It depends on the ability to pay some cash. This is an injustice to the poor who cannot pay. Therefore they may be innocently victimized.

5.   Mob Justice is very common today. The crowd being driven by emotion tends to execute justice without following any legal procedure. This may result into various problems including hatred, bodily injury, murder, and public humiliation among others hence being unfair.

6.   Cases of marital unfaithfulness are common today. Some married couples are toiling to keep their vows. Consequently, they get involved in adultery, divorce and prostitution. This is being unfair to the partner.

7.   Defilement is another form of injustice today. In this case, an adult chooses to have sexual relation with the under age who is not ready for such an affair.

8.   Cases of rape are also common today. This is an injustice because the sexual satisfaction is attained without the consent of one partner. It also associated with bodily injury and death among others as a result of using force.

9.   Some women today do practice abortion. The fetus is deliberately removed from the womb before it is capable of independent living. This is itself is a murder and therefore an injustice.

10. There is bullying in different institutions such as schools and work places. The new comers in such places are teased in different ways like beating, insulting or even grabbing their belongings. This may put the victims in tension and fear. The victim is therefore robbed of the expected freedom.

11. Some employers practice nepotism. They favour their relatives or friends while giving jobs even when they are not qualified. This is being unfair to those having the required qualification.

12. The practice of tribalism is also common in different work premises. The bosses do favour their own tribe mates in areas like promotion, salaries and even giving the job itself. Non-tribe mates are therefore left to suffer.

13. There is an increased case of killing and murder of innocent people. Even when one has committed an offence, killing is not a punishment because one is deprived of his or her life.

14. Robbery is a common injustice today. This is where an individual's property is removed by force. It is also associated with a lot of torture, which may eventually lead to death. This deprives the victims of the right of using such property.

15. Strike common in different institutions is an injustice. It is associated with a lot or destructions that the breaks relationship among people. It is also unlawful means of expressing discontent.

16. Corruption common in work places is also an injustice. The public facilities that could have benefited all people end up being used by a few. This leaves the rest of the population to suffer.

Injustices against Women in Uganda Today

1.   Women are over loaded with domestic duties such as cooking, bathing children, washing plates and clothes among others. Whereas the women are carrying out such duties, the men simply sit and watch with the belief that those are the natural duties of women.

2.   Some women are subjected to polygamous marriages. They are forced to share a man against their will. This is still because some men believe that it is their natural right to marry many wives. On the contrary, the men cannot allow sharing a woman.

3.   Men subject some women to beatings. In some societies, beating women is still considered a way of disciplining and is therefore normal. Women on the other hand are not allowed to beat men because it is regarded as abnormal.

4.   Some men look at women as sex objects. This means that they are simply there to satisfy the men's sexual desires, without any hesitation. This may explain the common cases of defilement, rape, and the support being given to prostitution.

5.   Women in some societies are stilt subjected to food taboos. They are not allowed to eat certain types of food like eggs, fish, pork and chicken among others without any reason. This denies women the chance of eating such nutritious foods. This may leave them vulnerable to diseases.

6.   Women are still being divorced with the society looking on it as being normal. They may not even be given the chance to defend themselves. Because of such public humiliation, the divorced women may become social misfits. This limits their socialization with other people making them to live in isolation.

7.   In some communities, inheritance of widows is still up held. Either the brother or the uncle of the deceased husband is bound to take over the wife with the belief that she is the property of that family. This humiliates the women since they are not even given the chance to resist.

8.   Some women are being denied the chance of inheriting their father's property in the event of death or old age. Property such as land, houses and cattle among others are given only to the sons. This is because of the belief that the daughters are not part of the family since they would be married elsewhere.

9.   Some women are denied family headship. Their position in family affairs is relatively low, with the men enjoying higher status. The men are considered superior and therefore are given much respect.

10. In some communities, women are forced into marriages. This is being carried out because of the desire for material benefits such as cattle, money and goats among others. The women are therefore treated unfairly by denying them the chance of making their own choices.

11. In the political field, women are disadvantaged. Some are not allowed to participate freely without being criticized. Some men cannot allow their wives to contest for an election or even to vote for candidates of their own choices.

12. In some cultures, women are still being regarded as a source of misfortune. They are always blamed for bad events such as childlessness and undisciplined children among others.

13. The demand for expensive bride wealth is instead an injustice. It reduces women's status to that of a mere commodity simply being sold and bought. It also subjects some women to mistreatment.

14. Some parents prefer educating sons to daughters. This leaves the girls as illiterates rendering them helpless to improve on their standard of living in the future. Consequently, this makes them unable to come out men’s oppression.

15. Women are also being discriminated in the field of work. In most cases, promotions and highly placed appointments are given to men. Some employers look at women as being weak and unreliable especially during pregnancy and breast-feeding.

Child Abuse

Child abuse refers to the ill treatment or mistreatment of a child by either the parents or any adult. In such a case the child is treated as if he or she is capable of an independent living. This denies the victim the chance of enjoying his or her child hood.

In Uganda, children’s rights are being abused in the following ways.

1.   Some parents or guardians tend under feed their children. They are either given little food intentionally or not given completely. This leaves such children weak and malnourished. This may also explain why some children begin stealing.

2.   Some children are over worked at home. They are assigned difficult tasks which even require an adult to do. For example digging large pieces of land and laying bricks among others. This leaves such children restless which instead affects their normal growth.

3.   Some parents reject their children as if they are not their true blood. Such children are chased away from homes. This exposes them to a lot of suffering. They may become social misfits since they do not know their origins.

4.   Some children are victims of corporal punishment. Even when they have committed light offences, they are severely punished like serious beating, burning their hands or denying them food.

5.   Some children have always been victims of defilement. Mature partners tend to lure them into sexual intercourse. This is particularly true with girls who are easily taken up by love even if it is no genuine. This is a sexual abuse because they are not ready for such an act.

6.   Children are also being raped. They are forced into sexual intercourse using violent means. This is an abuse of their rights because it does not only ignore their consent but it also involves a lot of bodily injuries.

7.   Some children have been denied the chance of being educated. The parents not only fail to give them-some basic knowledge in an informal way but also fail to take them to schools. This keeps such children as illiterates for the rest of their lives.

8.   In some cases, children are forced into marriages. This is the case with the parents who tend to arrange for the marriage without the knowledge of their sons and daughters. All these are done against the will of the child hence robbing them of their freedom and the enjoyment in their marriage lives.

9.   Devil worshippers today sacrifice some children. Such children are killed and given to the ancestral spirits as a way of pleasing them. It is also believed that their blood can prevent misfortune from occurring. This is being unfair; no one deserves the right to end another’s life.

10. The ever-increasing cases of child parenting are an abuse to children’s rights. Most parents have the tendency of leaving the younger children under the care of either house girls or the elder children. This is common with working parents. Children under this category may end up lacking parental care and love.

11. Some children are exposed to pornographic materials. This affects their morality negatively. It can easily make them begin engaging in sexual practices before they are capable of doing so.

12. Some children are denied medical attention. Even when they are sick; they are given little attention or no attention at all. This leaves them sickly, which may eventually result into death.

13. Children are being abused by leaving them homeless. The existence of street kids can best explain this state of affair. Such children are exposed to a lot of vices like illegal sex, drug abuse and gambling among others.

14. Child labour is also on the increase. Employing such children to support either themselves or other members of the family puts them at risk of being oppressed and exploited.

Mob Justice

Mob justice refers to a situation where an emotional crowd of people administers punishment for a crime committed without following any legal procedures. The suspected criminals may be punished by being stoned, burnt alive and stripped naked among others.

Causes of mob justice

1.   Ignorance of the existing law by the emotional crowd of people. Such people may not know that the state law is against such an act. Others may simply choose not to follow the law intentionally so as to fulfill their selfish aim of punishing the suspected criminal.

2.   Lawlessness or anarchy, especially during political instability. Because of this, the morals of the people tend to degenerate. People may therefore behave in any way including taking the laws into their hands to punish any suspect.

3.   Mob justice is also caused by excessive drug abuse like taking marijuana, cocaine and opium. People acting under the influence of such drugs may lack proper judgement and the sense of humanity. Therefore, they are capable of taking the law in their hands and punish anybody suspected to have committed an offence.

4.   Corruption or bribery in the judiciary common today is causing mob justice. This is brought about by people seeing criminals being defended, set free and their files being claimed to have disappeared. This may discourage people from following any legal procedures when handling suspected criminals.

5.   Mob justice is being caused by the high temper or uncontrolled emotion of some people. People under this category cannot act justly even when a small mistake is done because they get annoyed so easily. This means that they can also easily punish anybody suspected to be a criminal without regard to the law.       

6.   Mob justice is at times is carried out as a preventive measure of stopping more criminal activities from being committed. Punishing suspected criminals is meant to act as living examples and a warning to those who may he doing or have the intention of doing the same.

7.   Neglect of duty or conspiracy by the police may also cause mob justice. This is true if the police are always failing to execute their duties of arresting criminals. This gives the chance for the people who are already tired with such crimes to rise up and punish any suspect in self-defense.   

8.   Mob justice may be carried out as a means of destroying the evidence of a crime committed from being known. This is true in cases where other criminals are aware that the arrest and prosecution one or two criminals would reveal the truth about their identities. Such criminals can easily instigate mob justice.

9.   Mob justice may be caused by in judging cases in the courts of law. Such delays could take place to the disadvantage and frustrated people. Such people are reliable not to follow any legal procedure in case another suspect is arrested.

10. Mob justice can also he caused by idleness. As the saying goes, "an idle mind is the devils workshop", idlers can easily influence other people to administer a punishment for a crime committed with the false belief of being occupied.

11. In some cases, mob justice is caused by the influence of mass media like radio, television and newspapers among others. As such media expose the weaknesses of the government in handling criminal cases; they eventually sharpen the minds of the general public and plants aggressiveness onto them. This leads to loss of trust in the government thus giving the people the chance to do whatever they want including mob justice.

12. Mob justice can be as a result of loss of respect for the authorities. In this case, even when the authorities are against such an act the people are always not ready to listen to them. They can even organize mob justice intentionally to show that the authorities are too weak to control the affairs of the community.

13. Mob justice is being caused by inadequate facilities like transport and financial resources. For example, it may be costly to transport the suspected criminals to the nearby police station. In such a situation, the already emotional crowd is left with no option other than punishing the suspect.    

14. Mob justice is being caused by absence of religious virtues among the people. People are driven into unjust actions like beating and stoning among others because they lack religious values such as forgiveness, love, kindness, honesty and patience among others.


Reasons why mob justice is an injustice

1.   Mob justice does not give the victims the chance to defend themselves. One may therefore be punished innocently when he or she is simply a suspect.

2.   Mob justice may cause permanent bodily injuries to the suspect. This violates the rights of the suspects of being treated fairly.

3.   Mob justice humiliates the suspect publically. This makes the suspect loose respect from the public thereby making the person a social misfit,

4.   Mob justice destroys the evidence the police needs from the suspect especially in the event of death. This blocks the smooth carrying out of investigations.

5.   Mob justice may be instigated by personal differences, which does not even affect the public interest. The victim is therefore accused falsely.

6.   Mob justice does not respect the laws of the land. It is an illegal practice since the laws that are meant to create good relationship are ignored.

7.   Mob justice may result into the death of the suspect. This instead becomes a murder and therefore an injustice, as no one deserves the right to end another's life.

8.   Mob justice is not subjected to any authority. This makes it an injustice because no one is held responsible for the action.

9.   Mob justice may create permanent hatred and the heart of revenge among people of happiness in their daily activities.

10. Mob justice defiles the good intention of punishments, which are meant to correct the culprit. One may be punished innocently without knowing the reason properly. This does not give the chance to the individual to change his or her conduct tor the better.

11. Mob justice does not take into consideration the nature of the offence committed. Both major and minor offences are given the same punishment. This is unfair to the one who could have committed a minor offence like stealing food as compared to one who has murdered.

12. Mob justice under mines the work of the judges who are officially responsible tor pronouncing judgement and punishment for a crime committed.

The effort of the Church in fighting injustices today

1.   The church has built homes for the disadvantaged people such as the poor, orphans and the disabled for example, Sanyu Babies home at Mengo, the Bakateyamba at Nalukolongo all in Kampala. All these places provide their members with basic needs such as education, food, shelter and medical care among others.

2.   The church has set up organizations to tight injustices. Among others the Uganda Joint Christian Council (UJCC) is playing an important role of fighting injustices such as arbitrary arrest, corruption and rigging of elections among other things.

3.   The church has been and is still holding peace talks in an effort to reconcile conflicting parties For example, the Acholi Religious Leaders Peace Initiative (ARLPI) has for a long time been negotiating peaceful settlement of the conflict between the Uganda government and the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)-a rebel group under the leadership of Joseph Kony that was in Northern Uganda.

4.   The church is living as an example for many people to copy. This has been important in influencing the followers to also do the same.

5.   The church provides counselling and guidance services to the people with problems. This is helping to rehabilitate the lives of people who could have been subjected to injustices such as rape, defilement and arbitrary arrest among others.

6.   The church has also stood up to condemn any form of injustices. It speaks against any unjust situations and points out the need for people to live in peace and harmony.

7.   In some cases, the church organizes and carry's out demonstrations against injustices. This is conducted to express discontent for the existing state of affairs. It is aimed at making the offenders realize the injuries they are causing onto others.

8.   The church preaches the Christian ideals of love, forgiveness and patience among others to exist among people. It points the need for people to live together as children of God in peace and harmony.

9.   The church is also on the forefront providing employment to people of different backgrounds without discrimination. This is helping to keep people away from idleness-one of the causes' of injustices.

10. The church has always prayed for the instigators of and about the injustices people are undergoing through. This has helped in reducing the level of injustices.

11. The church has always and is still extending financial assistance to people who are constrained. This is important in reducing the level of poverty and its associated problems like corruption, famine and robbery among others.

12. The church has also been instrumental in the foundation and funding of the youth and women associations. These include Young Christian society (Y.C.S). Mothers Union, Scripture Union, Young Christian Women Association (YCWA). Through these associations, people are brought together and given some basic life skills.      

13. The church has always preached equality of all human beings. This is based on the ground that all are created in God's image. This has helped some people to treat each other with respect and human dignity.

The understanding, promotion and the administration of justice in traditional African society

In African traditional society, it was believed that God gave the first man some morals in the beginning. They believed that these morals were meant to guard human relationship from breaking up so as to ensure peaceful living.

Because of this, Africans remained keen and strict ensuring, promoting and maintaining justice as explained below.

1.   There existed local courts which were made up of influential people like chiefs, clan leaders and elders. They had the responsibility of reconciling people.

2.   However there were no written laws to be followed. Decisions were therefore based on the existing customs.

3.   The positions of the king were autonomous. No one could question his authority. This meant that the king’s decisions were final.

4.   Public resources like land were owned communally. The interest of the community was most catered for to ensure fairness.

5.   Taboos equally guarded human relationships. These were the dos and don'ts of the society.

6.   Social harmony was encouraged among the people. This was through team work and living as one people.

7.   Effort was made to treat everybody equally. They therefore struggled to ensure that no one was given special attention at the expense of others.

8.   Judgment was flexible. It depended on the circumstances of the time. An offender could be pardoned in times of peace and punished harshly during difficult times.

9.   Everyone was encouraged to respect and observe the customs and norms of the society. This was intended to ensure peace and stability.

10. Consensus was encouraged in the event of a disagreement. This meant that people with disagreements were encouraged to sit together and sort out their differences.

11. Reconciliation and forgiveness was encouraged. This was done in the presence of leaders like chiefs and tribal elders.

12. People were encouraged to compensate for any wrong doing. This was aimed at amending broken relationships.

13. Offenders were required to confess their mistakes in public. They had to promise that they would never repeat the same mistakes.

14. Purification rites were carried out. This involved cleansing of an offender from his or her sins aimed at avoiding punishment from the ancestral spirits.

15. Sanctions were passed on wrong doers. They were forbidden or restricted from some community functions and activities.

Revision Questions

How was justice prompted and maintained in African tradition society?

Explain justice as understood and worked out in traditional Africa.

 Explain the understanding of justice in the African past.

Injustices In African Traditional Society

Injustice refers to a breakdown of relationship among people. It can also mean being unfair to one another. In short, it means causing injury to the interests of other people.

In African traditional society, there are instances where people failed to relate to one another and treated each other harshly as seen below.

I.    The traditional Africans mistreated the disabled people such as the crippled and the insane. Such people were always isolated and even beaten occasionally:

2.   The traditional Africans practiced witch hunting. Whenever a misfortune like sudden death and sickness could befall the community the causes were always sought and, blamed on a person suspected to be a witch. In some cases the suspected witch was not even given the chance for a hearing but to accept the blame.  

3.   The traditional Africans exploited the minority groups of strangers. These people were not allowed to own land and .to inter-marry with the majority. This limited the freedom of these people.

4.   The traditional Africans practiced human sacrifices. Some children were sacrificed with the belief that their blood could save the society from any bad events such as more death, drought, war and epidemic.

5.   There was class discrimination in traditional Africa. In a centralized society, there were the royal and the non-royal classes. The royal class which was the ruling body exploited the non-royal Class who happened to be the subjects.

6.   The practice of bride wealth in some African societies turned out to be an Injustice. It reduced the status of women to that of mere property. It also subjected them to a lot of harsh treatment.

7.   Lazy people were treated harshly in traditional Africa. Some were even denied food and were always victims of isolation by the active members.

8.   The traditional Africans practiced forced marriage. This affected mostly younger girls and boys who were pushed into marriage for reasons best known to the elders. This was an injustice because the parents were only interested in the material benefits but not the welfare of the girl and the boys.

9.   The communal ownership of property in traditional Africa turned out to be an injustice. The active people who could have worked hard suffered in the hands of the lazy ones who would simply sit and wait for things to be done.

10. The traditional Africans denied women the chance of eating certain types of food like chicken, eggs, pork, liver and fish. Therefore, women denied proper health because of the absence of these nutritious foods.

11. The traditional Africans practiced circumcision of girls with the selfish aim of preventing them from committing adultery in their future marriages. This denied girls sexual pleasure.

12. Women in traditional Africa were associated with bad omens. They believed that meeting or greeting a woman in the morning could make an individual fail in his day's activities.

13. The traditional Africans blamed women for the misbehaviour of children. This was being unfair because the men were equally responsible for the upbringing of the children.

14. Women in traditional Africa were regarded as inferior and were not allowed to contribute any idea for public consumption. This was discrimination based on sex.

15. In traditional Africa, pregnant girls who conceived before marriage were killed. They were stoned, rolled down the mountain or tied up in the forest and left there such that wild animals could eat them. This was an injustice not only because of the killing act but also leaving out the man responsible for the pregnancy.

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