Changes responsible for rural-urban migration

Rural-urban migration refers to the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas. This movement is always as a result of some factors that push people away from the rural areas and the factors that pull people to urban areas. The following are the causes of rural-urban migration.

1.         Rural-urban migration is caused by better social services in urban areas, which are relatively rare in rural areas. These services include schools and hospitals among others. Therefore people move to have access to such better facilities.

2.         Social amenities such as cinema halls, disco halls, stadiums, and theaters are also behind rural-urban migration. These recreational facilities are relatively poor in rural areas but much better in urban areas. So people normally move in order to enjoy such facilities.

3.         Rural-urban migration is caused by the search for b better job opportunities. People generally believe that better jobs are readily available in urban areas. So, they move with the idea that they will get employed.

4.         In some cases, cultural rigidities end up pushing people away from rural to urban areas.

5.         Cultural practices such as circumcision, heavy bride price and forced marriages among others appear to be oppressive without giving room for adjustment.

6.         Increase in wages by the government is also causing rural-urban migration. People move with the knowledge that they will access the government pay roll and enjoy the huge pay.

7.         Rural-urban migration is being caused by the theoretical nature of education. Because the education is not practical oriented, the students are prepared for only white-collar jobs that are mostly found in urban areas. This makes them to look at urban life as being the best.

8.         Some people are forced to leave rural areas because of shortage of land. This may be as a result of population increase, which makes it difficult for all people to be accommodated. The landless people are, therefore, forced to migrate. A case in point is the migration of the Bakiga to the Kibale, Teso and Lango areas.

9.         Some people migrate after committing criminal offences in rural areas. For example, after committing crimes such as defilement, rape, robbery and incest, an individual may be forced to take refuge in urban areas where he or she is not known.

10.    Rural-urban migration is caused by better economic activities in urban areas. Such activities may include better business opportunities like banking, shops and insurance among others.

11.    Better standards of living in urban areas tend to pun some people away from rural areas.

12.    Facilities such as accommodation, transport and food among others are relatively of higher class in urban areas. Therefore people migrate to enjoy such facilities.

13.    Political stability in some rural areas also forces some people to migrate to urban areas. In this case, people move in search of secure settlements, which are guarded well by the security organs.

14.    Some people are influenced by their relatives to migrate to urban areas. This is the case with people having employed relatives in urban areas.

15.    Some individuals are influenced to migrate to urban areas by their peers. These are the people who migrate after seeing their friends moving.

Problems associated with rural - urban migration

1.         The job opportunities people dream of may be lacking in urban areas. This increases the level of unemployment. This at the end encourages idlers and the formation of gangs.

2.         Rural-urban migration increases the cost of living in the urban centers. Because of the increase in population, the available food supply may not be enough. This would lead to a high demand of the food items thus leading to a rise in prices.

3.         Rural-urban migration can lead to high government expenditure. This is because the government may have to increase her spending on social services such as schools and hospitals. This may eventually strain the government savings there by reducing the level of investment.

4.         Rural-urban migration may lead to shortages of food in both rural and urban areas. This is because the would-be available labour force would be redundant in urban areas characterized by inadequate land for cultivation.

5.         Rural-urban migration leads to decay in cultural set up. This may be as a result of mixing up with people having different traditional values and the permissive nature of urban life.

6.         Rural-urban migration leads to the growth of slums in urban centers. This is as a result of lack of enough accommodation. This causes overcrowding and can lead to easy spread of diseases.

7.         Rural-urban migration can lead to gambling. People would begin playing games without being sure of the outcome as a result of being jobless. This is associated with a number of problems like being arrested, encouraging laziness and lack of creativity.

8.         Rural-urban migration can also increase the level of crimes. This may be as a result of idleness. The idlers may gang up and engage in criminal activities like pick pocketing and fighting with the false belief of being occupied.

9.         Rural-urban migration leads to traffic congestion. This may be as a result of the increased population. This causes delay in most of the activities within urban centers.

10.    Rural-urban migration encourages prostitution. Because of the need for survival, many unemployed people would resort to sexual intercourse either for favour or for money. This not only reduces the moral status of the victims, it is also against God's intention for sex.

11.    Rural-urban migration may lead to increase in accidents. This is because of the increase in the number of people using the road including the pedestrians, motorists and cyclists.

12.    The general level of poverty can also increase. This may be as a result of people lacking viable economic activities to do. This affects people's saving habit negatively because of having no proper earnings.

13.    Rural-urban migration can lead to environmental degradation. For example, land may be fragmented (divided into smaller pieces). This discourages massive production of goods and services. Even those living in slums dispose a lot of waste that destroys the environment.

14.    Rural-urban migration leaves rural areas undeveloped. This is because all the available manpower could have left for town.


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